zubní stránky - vlastnosti zubních tkání a materiálů - převzato z Biomaterials Properties Database, University of Michigan


Introduction to Biomaterials Properties
References (1-100) | References (101-200) | References (201-244) |
Biomaterials Properties Table Listing

Bond Strengths Between Restorative Materials and Tooth Structures

Adhesion of restorative materials to tooth structures has been studied since 1955. The bond strength is the load required to fracture the bond divided by the cross-sectional area of the bond. Bond strengths are measured either in shear or tension. Many factors, including the dentine substrate, the storage conditions and the test method, affect the bond strength values.
_________________________________________________________________
                                       Shear bond strength
Substrate    Adhesive     Adherend     (psi x 1000)  (MPa)   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Dentin  Dentin bonding    Composite          3.2-5.1   22-35  238
          system
Dentin  No smear layer    Light-cured
                            hybrid
                            glass-ionomer    1.5-1.7   10-12  238
Enamel  Enamel bonding    Composite          2.6-3.2   18-22  238
          system
Enamel  Amalgam           Composite          1.5-1.7   10-12  238
          bonding system
Enamel  Amalgam           Amalgam            0.3-0.9    2- 6  238
          bonding system
Enamel  No smear layer    Traditional
                            glass ionomer    1.2-1.7    8-12  238
Enamel  Enamel bonding    Orthodontic
          system            bracket          2.6-2.9   18-20  238
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________
                                      Tensile bond strength
Substrate    Adhesive     Adherend     (psi x 1000)  (MPa)   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Dentin     Polyurethane   Composite          0.1-0.9    1- 6  147
Dentin     Polyacrylic  
             acid         Composite          0.3-0.6    2- 4  147
Dentin     Organic
             phosphonates Composite          0.4-1.4    3-10  147
Dentin     4-META*        Composite          0.4-1.0    3- 7  147
Dentin     HEMA + GA#     Composite          1.6-2.4   11-17  147
Dentin     NPG-GMA/PMDM$  Composite          0.6-1.8    4-12  147
Dentin                    Glass ionomer          0.6    4     147
Dentin                    Zinc
                            polycarboxylate  0.4-0.6    3- 4  147
Dentin                    Adhesive resin 
                            cement               0.6    4.1   147
Dentin                    Conventional
                            resin cement         0.0    0.0   147
Etched enamel             Fine composite     2.4-2.8   17-20  147
Etched enamel             Microfine 
                            composite            1.4   10     147
Enamel                    Glass ionomer          0.7    5     147
Etched enamel             Adhesive resin
                            cement               2.2   15     147
Etched enamel             Conventional
                            resin cement         1.5   10     147
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*   4-META-4-methyloxyethyl-trimellitic anhydride
#   HEMA - hydroxyethyl methacrylate
    GA - glutaraldehyde
$   NPG-GMA - N-phenyl glycine - glycidyl methacrylate
    PMDM - pyromellitic acid diethylmethacrylate

 

 

Brinell Hardness Number, BHN

The Brinell hardness test depends upon the resistance offered to the penetration of a steel ball (1.6 mm diameter) when subjected to a weight of 12.6 kg. The resulting hardness value is computed as the ratio of the applied load to the area of the indentation produced.
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                                                  BHN
Material                    Product           (kg/sq. mm)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________
Cobalt-chromium alloy       Genesis II           265            9
Gold (condensed)
  Foil                                            69           33
  Mat                                             40           33
  Powdered                  Goldent               46           33
Gold alloys
  Type I                    Ney-Oro A             45            7
  Type II                   Ney-Oro A-1           95            7
  Type III, soft            Ney-Oro B-2          110            7
  Type III, hard            Ney-Oro B-2          120            7
  Type IV, soft             Ney-Oro G-3          140            7
  Type IV, hard             Ney-Oro G-3          220            7
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, soft        Forticast            175            9
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, hard        Forticast            265            9
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, soft     Paliney No.4         150            7
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, hard     Paliney No.4         205            7
  Au-Pd                     Olympia              200            9
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal                Jelenko O            165            9
Palladium-based dental
    alloy                   Microstar            240            9
Silver-palladium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge, soft    Albacast             130            9
  Crown-and-bridge, hard    Albacast             140            9
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal                Jel-5                170            9
_________________________________________________________________

 


 

Coefficient of Friction

The coefficient of friction is defined as the ratio of tangential force to normal load during a sliding process.
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                                Coefficient of friction
Material couples                 Dry              Wet        Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam on:
  Amalgam                     0.19-0.35                        95
  Bovine enamel                                0.12-0.28       95
  Composite resin                              0.10-0.18       95
  Gold alloy                                   0.10-0.35       95
  Porcelain                   0.06-0.12        0.07-0.15       95
Bone on:
  Metal (bead-coated)         0.50                            203
  Metal (fiber mesh-coated)   0.60                            203
  Metal (smooth)              0.42                            203
Bovine enamel on:
  Acrylic resin               0.19-0.65                        95
  Amalgam                     0.18-0.22                        95
  Bovine dentin               0.35-0.40        0.45-0.55       95
  Bovine enamel               0.22-0.60        0.50-0.60       95
  Chromium-nickel alloy       0.10-0.12                        95
  Gold                        0.12-0.20                        95
  Porcelain                   0.10-0.12        0.50-0.90       95
Composite resin on:
  Amalgam                     0.13-0.25        0.22-0.34       95
  Bovine enamel                                0.30-0.75       95
Gold alloy on:
  Acrylic                     0.6 -0.8                         95
  Amalgam                     0.15-0.25                        95
  Gold alloy                  0.2 -0.6                         95
  Porcelain                   0.22-0.25        0.16-0.17       95
Hydrogel-coated latex on:
  Hydrogel                                     0.054          204
Latex on:
  Glass                                        0.470          204
  Hydrogel                                     0.095          204
Metal (bead-coated) on:
  Bone                        0.54                            203
Metal (fiber mesh-coated) on:    
  Bone                        0.58                            203
Metal (smooth) on:              
  Bone                        0.43                            203
Prosthetic tooth materials
  Acrylic on acrylic          0.21             0.37            94
  Acrylic on porcelain        0.23             0.30            94
  Porcelain on acrylic        0.34             0.32            94
  Porcelain on porcelain      0.14             0.51            94
_________________________________________________________________
 



 

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (Linear)

The coefficient of thermal expansion (linear) is the change in length per unit length of material for a one degree Centigrade change in temperature.
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                                        CE       Temp. Range
Material             Product    (x 10e-6/deg. C)   (deg. C)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Alumina
  (recrystallized)                        6.2         0-200    20
Amalgam                                22.1-28.0     20- 50   147
Cement 
  Unmodified ZOE                         35          25- 60    91
Cobalt-chromium
  alloys             Master Tec          14.7        25-500   222
                     Novarex             14.1        25-500   223
Denture resins
  Acrylic                                76           5- 37    59
  Polystyrene        Jectron             67.3        20- 37    46
  Polyvinylacrylic   Luxene 44           69.2        20- 37    46
Gold Alloys
  Au-Pd              Olympia             14.1        25-500     9
  Au-Pt-Pd           TPW                 15.48      200-700   196
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal         Jelenko O           14.71       40-500   134
                     SMG-2               15.73       40-500   134
                     Williams-Y          14.83       40-500   134
Gutta percha                             54.9        23-38    114
Impression materials
  Silicone,
    addition         Exaflex
                       light            142          22-40    225
                       medium           128          22-40    225
                     Permagum
                       light            184          22-40    225
                       medium           158          22-40    225
                       heavy            147          22-40    225
                       putty            132          22-40    225
                     President
                       light            156          22-40    225
                       medium           144          22-40    225
                       heavy            120          22-40    225
                       putty            109          22-40    225
                     Reflect            152          22-40    225
                     Reprosil
                       light            154          22-40    225
                       medium           152          22-40    225
                       heavy            136          22-40    225
                       putty            109          22-40    225
                     Xantogum           160          22-40    225
Mercury                                  60.6        20-50    147
Nickel-chromium
  alloys             Biobond C & B       14.27       40-500   134
                     Ceramalloy II       14.63       40-500   134
                     NP-2                15.28       40-500   134
                     Pentillium          14.14       40-500   134
                     Unimetal            15.68      200-700   196
Palladium-based dental
  alloys             Microstar           14.3        25-500     9
                     Spartan             14.2        25-500   222
                     W-1                 15.2        25-500   222
Pit-and-fissure sealants
  Self-cured         Delton            90.3-97.1      0- 60   148
                     Kerr              70.9-78.2      0- 60   148
                     White             93.7-99.1      0- 60   148
  Light-cured        Nuva Seal           78-80        0- 60   148
Porcelains
  Feldspathic                           6.4-7.8       0-200    20
  Body               Biobond          13.59-14.82*   40-500   134
                     Ceramco          12.93-13.07*   40-500   134
                     Microbond        14.59-15.28*   40-500   134
                     Neydium          14.04-15.93*   40-500   134
                     Vita (VMK-68)    12.73-14.45*   40-500   134
                     Will-Ceram       15.94-16.23*   40-500   134
  Opaque             Biobond          13.10-14.35*   40-500   134
                     Ceramco          12.70-14.23*   40-500   134
                     Microbond        12.38-14.80*   40-500   134
                     Neydium          13.25-14.23*   40-500   134
                     Vita (VMK-68)    14.29-16.03*   40-500   134
                     Will-Ceram       14.68-15.45*   40-500   134
Pure metals
  Gold                                   14.4        20- 50   147
  Platinum                                8.9       Near 20   130
  Silver                                 19.2        20- 50   147
  Titanium                               11.9          23     126
Restorative materials
  Acrylic            Sevriton            92.0        24- 88    42
  Composite resin    Adaptic             39.4        24- 88    42
                                       35.8-40.1      0- 60   148
                     Adaptic
                       (radiopaque)    32.2-39.0      0- 60   148
                     Concise           39.6-43.4      0- 60   148
                     Nuva Fil          28.3-30.2      0- 60   148
                     Simulate          28.2-31.6      0- 60   148
                     Vytol             26.5-27.8      0- 60   148
Ti-6Al-4V alloy                          12.43      200-700   196
Tooth structures
  Crown                                  11.4        20- 50   147
  Root                                    8.3        20- 50    66
Vitreous carbon                           2.2         0-100   117
Waxes
  Inlay casting, 
    hard             Kerr blue hard     320          22- 37    29
  Inlay casting,
    soft             Kerr blue regular  260          22- 37    29
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* Range is for 1-7 firing cycles.  Values of the coefficients are not 
necessarily 
related to the specific firing cycle.
 



 

Color range of natural teeth

Several investigations on the distribution of color in natural teeth have been made. Some evaluations were made visually, based on matching the teeth with porcelain sample (ref. 239) and Munsell tabs (ref.239), while others were determined by spectrophotometric measurements (ref.241-244).
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                            Range in Munsell notation
                           ___________________________
Number
of teeth     Position      Hue        Value     Chroma       Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

6000         Overall   6  YR- 9.3Y   4/-  8/    /0-  /7      239
  81         Overall   9.5YR- 3.0Y   6.0/-7.5/  /1.5-/4.5    240
  33         Overall   7.5YR- 2.7Y   5.8/-8.5/  /1.5-/5.6    241
 268         Overall   8.9YR- 3.3Y   5.8/-8.0/  /0.8-/3.4    242
 100         Middle
               third   8.2YR- 2.9Y   6.1/-8.4/  /2.0-/4.3    243
  95         Incisal
               third   7.9YR- 4.6Y   6.0/-8.4/  /0.3-/3.0    244
  95         Middle
               third   7.3YR- 3.5Y   5.4/-8.2/  /0.7-/4.0    244
  95         Gingival 
               third   8.8YR- 3.0Y   5.5/-8.0/  /0.8-/4.2    244
__________________________________________________________________
 



 

Colors of Dental Shade Guides

The colors of shade guide teeth were determined using a methodology developed for a reflectance spectrophotometer (ref 149). The spectral reflectance of each shade tab was measured using a dual-beam spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere and a beam-reducing accessory. Relative reflectance measurements were converted to absolute reflectance. Tristimulus coordinates were determined for each sample by use of the CIE standard observer function and standard illuminant source C. The tristimulus coordinates were then converted to the CIE L*a*b* and Munsell Color Systems.
              Bioform shade-guide colors (ref 149)
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         Munsell         Chromaticity
         notation        coordinates             CIE L* a* b*
      _____________  _____________________   ___________________
Shade  H    V  C       Y      x      y        L*      a*     b*
_________________________________________________________________

B-59  3.5Y 7.80/2.0   55.72  0.3407 0.3502   79.49  -1.10  15.26
B-51  3.2Y 7.80/2.2   55.24  0.3432 0.3525   79.21  -0.99  16.31
B-91  2.4Y 7.45/1.9   49.57  0.3406 0.3484   75.84  -0.42  14.14
B-62  3.1Y 7.45/2.3   49.92  0.3454 0.3539   76.05  -0.64  16.53
B-66  2.8Y 7.55/2.8   51.21  0.3534 0.3615   76.84  -0.42  20.18
B-52  3.6Y 7.50/2.1   50.42  0.3451 0.3553   76.36  -1.28  16.94
B-53  2.1Y 7.40/2.5   49.39  0.3499 0.3559   75.72   0.33  17.76
B-92  3.0Y 7.35/2.0   48.67  0.3429 0.3514   75.28  -0.66  15.27
B-63  1.7Y 7.45/2.8   50.00  0.3548 0.3594   76.10   0.87  19.64
B-54  2.0Y 7.40/2.7   49.15  0.3532 0.3589   75.58   0.46  19.13
B-65  1.1Y 7.30/3.1   49.14  0.3606 0.3629   75.57   1.73  21.48
B-93  2.2Y 7.15/2.6   45.01  0.3526 0.3584   72.93   0.40  18.34
B-55  2.9Y 7.30/2.9   47.10  0.3558 0.3639   74.28  -0.39  20.69
B-69  2.6Y 6.95/2.6   42.49  0.3545 0.3614   71.24   0.03  19.11
B-94  3.0Y 6.95/2.7   42.30  0.3548 0.3627   71.11  -0.32  19.48
B-95  2.6Y 6.85/2.4   41.22  0.3502 0.3570   70.36   0.03  17.07
B-67  2.5Y 7.20/3.2   46.26  0.3614 0.3681   73.74   0.14  22.66
B-56  2.0Y 7.30/2.9   47.80  0.3581 0.3633   74.73   0.66  21.00
B-77  2.3Y 7.05/2.8   44.09  0.3572 0.3628   72.32   0.50  20.16
B-81  1.5Y 6.60/2.8   38.82  0.3588 0.3616   68.65   1.43  19.24
B-96  1.9Y 6.55/2.9   37.05  0.3610 0.3641   67.34   1.31  19.93
B-83  1.3Y 7.00/3.6   43.25  0.3693 0.3701   71.52   2.25  23.94
B-84  0.9Y 6.65/3.2   37.98  0.3663 0.3653   68.01   2.74  21.21
B-85  1.8Y 6.65/4.1   38.24  0.3811 0.3794   68.23   2.91  27.38
_________________________________________________________________

Vita shade-guide colors
_________________________________________________________________

         Munsell         Chromaticity
         notation        coordinates             CIE L* a* b*
         (ref 151)       (ref 152)               (ref 151)
      _____________  _____________________   ___________________
Shade  H    V  C       Y      x      y        L*      a*     b*
_________________________________________________________________

A1    4.5Y 7.80/1.7   55.92  0.3352 0.3459   79.57  -1.61  13.05
A2    2.4Y 7.45/2.3   49.95  0.3468 0.3539   76.04  -0.08  16.73
A3    1.3Y 7.40/2.9   48.85  0.3559 0.3593   75.36   1.36  19.61
A3.5  1.6Y 7.05/3.2   44.12  0.3627 0.3657   72.31   1.48  21.81
A4    1.6Y 6.70/3.1   38.74  0.3633 0.3658   68.56   1.58  21.00
B1    5.1Y 7.75/1.6   54.76  0.3336 0.3447   78.90  -1.76  12.33
B2    4.3Y 7.50/2.2   50.97  0.3437 0.3549   76.66  -1.62  16.62
B3    2.3Y 7.25/3.2   46.91  0.3611 0.3669   74.13   0.47  22.34
B4    2.4Y 7.00/3.2   43.38  0.3620 0.3678   71.81   0.50  22.15
C1    4.3Y 7.30/1.6   47.16  0.3361 0.3462   74.21  -1.26  12.56
C2    2.8Y 6.95/2.3   42.12  0.3487 0.3563   70.95  -0.22  16.72
C3    2.6Y 6.70/2.3   39.11  0.3499 0.3569   68.83  -0.01  16.68
C4    1.6Y 6.30/2.7   33.77  0.3600 0.3622   64.78   1.59  18.66
D2    3.0Y 7.35/1.8   48.71  0.3391 0.3473   75.27  -0.54  13.47
D3    1.8Y 7.10/2.3   44.48  0.3482 0.3534   72.55   0.62  16.14
D4    3.7Y 7.05/2.4   43.45  0.3492 0.3591   71.86  -1.03  17.77
_________________________________________________________________
H        hue
V        value
C        chroma
Y        lightness
x and y  hue and chroma
L*       lightness
a*       hue and chroma on a red/green scale
b*       hue and chroma on a yellow/blue scale
 

Contact Angle (liquid phase)

The angle of contact between a liquid and a solid is a measure of the tendency for the liquid to spread over or wet the solid surface. The lower the contact angle, the greater the tendency for the liquid to wet the solid, until complete wetting occurs at an angle of zero degrees.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                   Contact
                                         Liquid     angle
Material               Product           Phase    (degrees)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam                New True
                         Dentalloy       Water       77        58
Bacteria
  A. odontolyticus A7-1                  Water       41       200
  A. viscosus C7-4                       Water       35       200
  S. mutans C7-3                         Water       12       200
  S. salivarius B3-4                     Water       24       200
  S. sanguis C7-2                        Water       48       200
Cement
  Orthodontic           Concise          Water       30       215
Denture resins
  Acrylic                                Alcohol      0        57
                                         Saliva      73        57
                                         Water       75        57
  Acrylic (modified)    Hydrocryl        Water       78       112
  Polystyrene                            Saliva      79        50
                                         Water       86        50
Glass                                    Water       14        58
Gold alloy
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal            Ceramco No.1     Porcelain   40*       56
Impression materials
  Polyether             Impregum
                          Untreated      Dental 
                                           stone mix 55-58    236
                                                     40.4     237
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Clorox         stone mix 59-60    236
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Sporicidin     stone mix 81-93    236
                        Impregum F       Water       42.6     216
                        Permadyne
                          light          Water       43.1     216
                          heavy          Water       43.9     216
  Polysulfide           Permlastic
                          Untreated      Water       42.1     216
                                         Dental
                                           stone mix 76-82    236
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Clorox         stone mix 78-82    236
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Sporicidin     stone mix 43-47#   236
  Silicone, addition    Examix
                          Untreated      Dental
                                           stone mix 71-74    236
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Clorox         stone mix 90-92    236
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Sporicidin     stone mix 94-95    236
                        Express
                          light          Water      104.9     216
                          putty          Water      101.7     216
                        Express 
                          Hydrophilic
                            light        Water       19.7     216
                            medium       Water       78.3     216
                                         Dental 
                                           stone mix 64.4     237
                            putty        Water       63.8     216
                        Imprint  
                          Hydrophilic
                            medium       Water       46.3     216
                        Mirror 3 extrude
                          light          Water       33.9     216
                          medium         Water       57.7     216
                          putty          Water       98.4     216
                        President
                          Untreated      Dental
                                           stone mix 92-96    236
                          30 min. in     Dental
                            Clorox         stone mix 98-99    236
                          30 min. in     Dental   
                            Sporicidin     stone mix 94-98    236
                        Unosil           Dental
                                           stone mix 75.0     237
  Silicone,
    condensation        Citricon
                          light          Water       81.7     216
                          putty          Water       90.7     216
                        Rapid
                          light          Water       95.2     216
                          putty          Water      102.6     216
                        Xantopren        Dental
                                           stone mix 89.1     237
Polymers
  Poly (butyl cyanoacrylate)             Water       69       217
  Poly (ether urethane)                  Water       80       202
  Poly (ethyl cyanoacrylate)             Water       65       217
  Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
    Atactic                              Water       17       217
    Isotactic                            Water       13       217
  Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-
    methoxyethyl methacrylate) (1:1)     Water       22       217
  Poly (methoxyethyl methacrylate)       Water       46       217
  Poly (methyl cyanoacrylate)            Water       57       217
  Poly (methyl methacrylate)             Water       62-73    217
  Polystyrene                            Water       66       217
  Poly 
    (tetrafluoroethylene)  Teflon        Water      110        58
  Poly (vinyl chloride)                  Water       69       202
  Silicone                               Water      110       202
Restorative materials
  Acrylic                  Bonfil        Water       38        58
  Composite resin          Addent        Water       51        58
Silicate                   Improved Filling
                             Porcelain   Water       12        58
Wax, paraffin                            Water      109        50
_________________________________________________________________

*  Measured at 1038 deg. C.
#  "The polysulfide appeared to have reacted with the 0.5% sodium 
   hypochlorite." (ref. 236).

_________________________________________________________________
                  
                   Contact angle (solid surface)
_________________________________________________________________

                                                   Contact
                                         Solid      angle
Material               Product           Surface  (degrees)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Bonding agents         Adaptic Bonding
                         Agent           Enamel       0       133
                       Concise
                         Enamel Bond     Enamel       0       133
Fluoride gel           Flura-Gel         Enamel      30       132
                       Luride            Enamel      31       132
                       Predent           Enamel      36       132
                       Rafluor           Enamel      38       132
Fluoride solutions     Rafluor           Enamel       0       132
                       NaF Rinse         Enamel       0       132
Glaze                  Adaptic Glaze     Enamel       0       133
Pit and fissure sealants
  Light-cured          Nuva-Seal         Enamel      28       133
  Self-cured           Delton            Enamel       0       133
_________________________________________________________________
 


 

Creep of Amalgam

Creep is a measure of the viscoelastic properties of a material. In the dynamic creep method, a compressive load is applied to a specimen to produce a fluctuating stress which is cycled from 500 to 10,000 psi (34.5 to 69.0 MPa) at a rate of 1800 times per minute. In the static creep method, a constant compressive stress of 5250 psi (36.2 MPa) is applied to the specimen. In the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association's flow method (ref. 73), the specimen is subjected to a compressive stress of 1450 psi (10.0 MPa). In each method the change in length of the specimen is measured and divided by the original length.
_________________________________________________________________

                                Dynamic    Static     ADA
                                 creep     creep      flow
Material        Product           (%)       (%)       (%)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam
  Admixed      Dispersalloy        0.86      0.76      0.50    53
                                             0.67             214
                                             0.3              143
               Dispersalloy
                 fast set                    0.41*            142
                                             0.32#            142
                 regular set                 0.46*            142
                                             0.37#            142
                 non zinc                    1.01             214
               Optaloy II                    1.77             214
                                             1.47*            142
                                             1.08#            142
               Valiant PhD                   0.21             171
  Lathe-cut    ANA 68 Dental
                 Alloy                       2.1              143
               ANA 2000
                 Nongamma 2                  0.15             143
               Aristoloy                     3.77             214
               Caulk Fine Cut                1.56*            142
                                             1.57#            142
               New True Dentalloy  1.85      2.36      0.65    53
                                             1.53             214
               Revalloy                      1.2              143
               20th Century Micro  8.76      8.37      3.91    53
  Spherical    Cupralloy Esp                 0.37*            142
                                             0.25#            142
               Indiloy                       0.34*            142
                                             0.15#            142
               Sybraloy                      0.10             214
                                             0.10*            142
                                             0.05#            142
               Tytin                         0.20             171
                                             0.08             214
               Valiant                       0.06             171
_________________________________________________________________

* Hand Triturated
# Mechanically Triturated



 

Critical Surface Tension

The critical surface tension is the surface tension of a liquid that would completely wet the solid of interest.
_________________________________________________________________

                                           Critical surface
                                               tension
Material                     Product          (dynes/cm)     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam                      Argos Alloy          48.1         52
Co-Cr-Mo, as polished        Vitallium*           22.3        137
Co-Cr-Mo, plasma cleaned     Vitallium*          >72          137
Glass                        Pyrex               170           71
Gold                         AB Adelmetall        57.4         52
Impression materials
  Polyether                  Impregum             27.9        169
  Silicone, addition         Express Hydrophilic  53.8        169
                             Imprint Hydrophilic  52.4        169
                             President            21.2        169
                             Provil               20.2        169
  Silicone, condensation     Xantopren            14.4        169
Paraffin                                          22-26        71
Polymers
  Polyetherurethane          Pellethane 80A       19.3        170
                             Pellethane 55D       22.1        170
                             Pellethane 75D       35.7        170
  Polyetherurethane urea     Biomer               23.0        170
  Polyethylene                                    31-33        71
  Poly(methyl methacrylate)                       39.0         71
  Polystyrene                                     33-43        71
  Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)  Teflon               18           71
Tooth structure, enamel                           38.5-40#     51
                                                  31.5$        51
_________________________________________________________________

* Surgical
# 23 deg. C,  50% relative humidity
$ 37 deg. C, 100% relative humidity
 



 

Density

Density is the concentration of matter as measured by the mass per unit volume. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the density of the substance to that of water.

_________________________________________________________________



                                               Density

Material                        Product        (g/cu. cm)    Ref.

_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam                                         11.6          220

Bonding agent                   Silux Enamel    

                                  Bond           1.20         221

Bones

  Cancellous                                     1.3          192

  Cortical                                       1.3          192

Cements

  Calcium hydroxide             Dycal            1.91         206

                                Life             1.88         206

  Glass-ionomer                 Base cement      2.13**       205

                                Dentin cement    2.02**       205

                                Ketac-cem        2.16**       205

  Polymer-modified ZOE          IRM              2.29*         24

  Resin                         CBA 9080         2.02         109

  Unmodified ZOE                Cavitec          2.05         206

  Zinc phosphate                Tenacin          2.59$         24

  Zinc polycarboxylate                           2.19         124

Cobalt-chromium alloys          Genesis II       8.8            9

                                Master Tec       8.1          222

                                Novarex          8.75##       223

                                Vitallium        8.5          220

Denture resin, acrylic                           1.19          59

Fluorapatite

  Mineral-Durango, Mexico                        3.215         40

Gold (condensed)

  Foil                                          17.22          33

  Mat                                           16.44          33

  Powdered                      Goldent         17.36          33

Gold alloys

  Type II                                       16.4           97

  Type III                                      15.5          220

  40% Au-Ag-Cu                  Forticast       12.5            9

  10-15%  Au-Ag-Pd              Paliney No.4    12.3            7

  Au-Pd                         Olympia         13.7            9

  Porcelain-fused-to-metal      Jelenko O       18.2            9

Gypsum                          Moldablaster   1.9-2.0        224

Hydroxyapatite                                   3.1          192

Impression materials (polymerized)

  Polyether                     Impregum         1.06         207

  Silicone, addition            Baysilex         1.37         207

                                Provil

                                  medium         1.40         207

                                  high           1.43         207

Mercury                                         13.55         130

Monomers (crown-and-bridge resins)

  Methyl methacrylate                            0.9374       128

  Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate                 1.055        129

  1,3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate             1.02         129

  Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate              1.072        129

Nickel-chromium alloys

  Crown-and-bridge              Howmedica III    7.9           10

  Porcelain-fused-to-metal      Ultratek         8.0            6

Palladium-based dental alloys   Microstar       10.8            9

                                Spartan         10.6          222

                                W-1             11.1          222

Pit and fissure sealant         Delton           1.23         127

Porcelain, feldspathic                           2.4           20

Pure metals

  Chromium                                       7.19         130

  Copper                                         8.96         130

  Gold                                          19.3          130

  Nickel                                         8.9          130

  Palladium                                     12.02         130

  Platinum                                      21.45         130

  Silver                                        10.49         130

  Titanium                                       4.51         130

  Zinc                                           7.13         130

Restorative materials

  Composite resin

    All-purpose                 Heliomolar

                                  Radiopaque     1.84         221

                                Herculite XR     2.09         221

    Anterior                    Silux Plus       1.61         221

    Posterior                   Ful Fil          2.14         221

                                Visiomolar       2.38         221

Silicate                        Improved Filling

                                  Porcelain      2.01#         24

Silver-palladium alloys

  Crown-and-bridge              Albacast        10.6            9

  Porcelain-fused-to-metal      Jel-5           10.9            9

Ti-6 Al-4 V alloy                                4.5          220

Tooth structures

  Cementum                                       2.03          43

  Dentin (deciduous)                             2.18          43

  Dentin (permanent)                             2.14          44

  Enamel (deciduous)                             2.95          43

  Enamel (permanent)                             2.97          44

Vitreous carbon                                  1.47         117

Water (4 deg. C)                                 1.00           1

_________________________________________________________________



*  Powder/liquid ratio, 5.0 g/ml.

#  Powder/liquid ratio, 3.0 g/ml.

$  Powder/liquid ratio, 2.5 g/ml.

** Powder/liquid ratio 1.0.

## Specific gravity.
 

Dynamic modulus

The dynamic modulus is defined as the ratio of stress to strain for small cyclic deformations at a given frequency and at a particular point on the stress-strain curve.
__________________________________________________________________

                                         Dynamic modulus
Material                 Product       (psi x 1000) (MPa)     Ref.
__________________________________________________________________

Maxillofacial materials
  Polyurethane           Dermathane 100    0.444*     3.06*     38
  Polyvinyl chloride     Sartomer Resins   0.364*     2.51*     38
  Silicone rubber        Silastic 382      0.435*     3.00*     38
                         Silastic 399      0.554*     3.82*     38
Mouth protector material
  Polyvinyl acetate-
   polyethylene          Proform           3.07*     21.2*      37
                         Sta-Guard         1.36*      9.39*     37
Restorative materials
   Composite resin
     Anterior            Silar            372.6#      2569#    219
                         Silux            374.5#      2582#    219
     Posterior           P10             1218  #      8396#    219
                         P50             1399  #      9645#    219
                         Profile         1147  #      7911#    219
                         Profile TLC     1274  #      8786#    219

__________________________________________________________________

* Measured at 37 deg. C.
# Dynamic sheer modulus, measured wet at 40 deg. C.




Elastic Modulus, E

The elastic modulus of a material represents the relative stiffness of the material within the elastic range and can be determined from a stress-strain curve by calculating the ratio of stress to strain. Unless indicated otherwise, values were determined in tension.

_________________________________________________________________



                                                   E

Material                Product        (psi x 10e6) (GPa)    Ref.

_________________________________________________________________



Alumina                 De Trey            60.6*    418*       21

Amalgams (7d)

  Admixed               Dispersalloy        7.60*    52.4*    186

                        Valiant PhD         8.05*    55.5*    186

  Spherical             Indiloy             7.56*    52.1*    186

                        Lojic               7.82*    53.9*    186

                        Sybraloy            8.72*    60.1*    186

                        Tytin               7.64*    52.7*    186

                        Valiant             8.54*    58.9*    186

Bones

  Cancellous                                0.071     0.49    192

  Cortical                                  2.1      14.7     192

  Long bones

    Femur                                   2.49     17.2     172

    Humerus                                 2.49     17.2     172

    Radius                                  2.70     18.6     172

    Tibia                                   2.63     18.1     172

  Vertebrae

    Cervical                                0.033     0.23    172

    Lumbar                                  0.023     0.16    172

Cements

  (base consistency, 24 hrs)

  Polymer-modified ZOE  B & T               0.310#    2.14#     2

  Zinc phosphate        Zinc Cement

                          Improved          3.25#    22.4#      2

  Zinc polycarboxylate  Durelon             0.718#    4.95#     2

Cements

  (luting consistency, 24 hrs)

  EBA-alumina ZOE       Opotow              0.787#    5.43#     2

                                            0.45$     3.1$    145

  Glass-ionomer         ASPA                1.4$      9.8$    145

                        Fuji                0.58$     4.0$    145

                        Ketac-cem           0.91*     6.3*    178

  Noneugenol

    zinc oxide          Nogenol             0.0257#   0.177#    2

  Polymer-modified ZOE  Fynal               0.441#    3.04#     2

                                            0.17$     1.2$    145

  Zinc phosphate        Zinc Cement

                          Improved          1.99#    13.7#      2

  Zinc polycarboxylate  Carboxylon          0.35$     2.4$    145

                        Durelon             0.638#    4.40#     2

                                            0.46$     3.2$    145

                        Durelon

                          (thin liquid)     0.44$     3.0$    145

Cements (liners, 24 hrs)

  Calcium hydroxide

    Light-cured         VLC Dycal           0.087*    0.6*    178

    Self-cured          Dycal               0.32*     2.2*    178

                        Life                0.29*     2.0*    178

  Glass-ionomer

    Light-cured         Vitrabond           0.16*     1.1*    179

                        XR Ionomer          0.35*     2.4*    179

    Self-cured          GC Lining Cement    0.42*     2.9*    178

                        Ketac Bond          0.68*     4.7*    178

  Resin                 Cavalite            0.38*     2.6*    179

                        Timeline            0.25*     1.7*    179

  Unmodified ZOE        Cavitec             0.0406#   0.280#    2

Cobalt-chromium alloys  Advantage**        18.2     125       198

                        Advantage##        21.6     149       198

                        Cobond**           21.8     150       198

                        Cobond##           23.0     159       198

                        GenesisII**        30.6     211       198

                        GenesisII##        22.8     157       198

                        Master Tec**       21.2     146       198

                        Master Tec##       22.8     157       198

                        Novarex**          22.4     154       198

                        Novarex##          26.3     181       198

                        NovarexII**        23.8     164       198

                        NovarexII##        21.8     150       198

                        Vi-Comp**          21.6     149       198

                        Vi-Comp##          22.8     157       198

                        Vitallium          31.6     218        61

Crown-and-bridge resins

  Acrylic               Biotone             0.327#    2.26#    23

  Polyester             Mer-Don 7           0.267#    1.84#    23

  Polyvinyl acrylic     Luxene              0.410#    2.83#    23

Denture resins

  Cold-cured            PERform             0.236     1.63    218

  Heat-cured            Lucitone 199        0.154     1.06    218

                        Paragon             0.426     2.94    209

                        Perma-cryl 20       0.193     1.33    218

  Light-cured           Triad               0.306     2.11    218

Duplicating material

  Agar                  Nobiloid           70psi      0.48MPa  60

Fluorapatite            Durango, Mexico    21.4     148        40

Gold alloys

  Type I                Special Inlay      11.2#     77.2#      4

  Type III              Sjoding C-3        14.5     100       144

  Type IV               Ney-Oro G-3        14.4#     99.3#      4

                        Sjoding D          13.8      95       144

  64% Au-Ag-Cu          Begolloyd          11.5      79       144

  48% Au-Ag-Cu          Midigold           14.5     100       144

  Au-Ag-Pd                                 11.4      78       192

  Au-Pd                 Olympia**          14.9     103       199

                        Olympia##          15.7     108       199

  Porcelain-fused-

    to-metal            Ceramco O          12.5      86.2       6

Gutta-percha            Indian Head         0.027     0.186    28

                        Mynol               0.022     0.152    28

Gypsum

  Improved stone        Velmix              2.1*     14.5*     83

Hydroxyapatite                              5.0      34       192

Impression materials

  Agar#                 Surgident         200psi     1.38MPa   60

  Alginate, 6 min.$$    Jeltrate           38psi     0.26MPa   27

  Polyether***          Impregum F         51psi     0.35MPa  187

                        Permadyne          59psi     0.41MPa  187

  Polysulfide***        Permlastic

                          light             2psi     0.013MPa 187

                          heavy            17psi     0.12MPa  187

  Silicone, addition*** Provil

                          light            45psi     0.31MPa  187

                          putty            51psi     0.35MPa  187

  Silicone,

    condensation***     Rapid

                          light            13psi     0.088MPa 187

                          putty            38psi     0.26MPa  187

Iron-chromium alloys

  Crown-and-bridge      Dentillium C-B     25.7     177        61

  Partial denture       Dentillium P-D     29.3     202        61

Maxillofacial material

  Silicone rubber      Silastic 382       297psi      2.05MPa  39

Nickel-chromium

  alloys               Ceramalloy II**     27.2     188       199

                       Ceramalloy II##     23.1     159       199

                       Microbond NP2**     21.1     145       199

                       Microbond NP2##     21.1     145       199

                       Pentillium          24.9     172       136

                       Ticon**             25.6     177       199

                       Ticon##             24.8     171       199

  Porcelain-fused-

    to-metal           Ultratek            29.4     203         6

  Crown-and-bridge     Howmedica III       26.0     179       110

Palladium-based 

  dental alloys        Microstar**         19.5     134       199

                       Microstar##         17.9     123       199

                       Spartan**           15.8     109       199

                       Spartan##           15.0     103       199

                       W-1**               16.9     117       199

                       W-1##               16.8     116       199

Polymers

  Polyetherurethane    Pellethane2363-80A   0.0023    0.016   182

  Polyetherurethane

    urea               Biomer               0.0016    0.011   182

  Poly(methyl 

    methacrylate)                           0.345     2.38    183

Porcelains

  Alumina-reinforced   Vitadur-N(Core)     15.5     107       231

  Castable ceramic     Dicor               10.7      74       231

  Ceramic-whisker-

    reinforced         Mirage II           10.0      69       231

  Feldspathic          Excelco              8.7      60       231

                       Vita VMK 68         10.2      70       231

                       Vita VMK 68-N       10.0      69       231

                       Will-Ceram           9.1      63       231

  Leucite-reinforced   Optec HSP            9.1      63       231

Restorative materials

  Composite resin

    All-purpose        Brilliant            2.41     16.6     158

                       Charisma             2.04     14.1     158

                       Conquest DFC         2.54     17.5     158

                       Heliomolar 

                         Radiopaque         1.41      9.8     158

                       Herculite XR         2.33     16.0     158

                       Herculite XRV        1.38      9.5     211

                       Marathon             2.95     20.3     158

                       P-50 APC             3.63     25.0     158

                       Pertac Hybrid        2.18     15.1     158

                       Prisma APH           1.98     13.6     158

                       True Vitality        0.78      5.4     211

                       Z-100                3.05     21.0     158

    Anterior           Durafill             0.88      6.1     158

                       Helio Progress       1.32      9.1     158

                       Multifil VS          1.14      7.8     158

                       Prisma Fil           2.07     14.3     158

                       Prisma Microfine     0.83      5.7     158

                       Silar                1.32      9.1     158

                       Silux                1.36      9.4     158

                       Silux Plus           1.37      9.5     158

                       Valux                2.86     19.7     158

                       Visio Dispers        1.56     10.8     158

                       Visio Fil            3.15     21.7     158

    Posterior          Clearfil Photo

                         Posterior          3.68     25.3     158

                       Ful Fil              2.10     14.5     158

                       Heliomolar           1.54     10.6     158

                       Occlusin             3.45     23.8     158

                       P-10                 3.64     25.1     158

                       Post Comp II LC      2.33     16.1     158

  Glass-ionomer        Ketac-fil            1.57     10.8     188

  Metal-reinforced

    glass-ionomer      Ketac-Silver         0.62*     4.3*    178

Silicate               Improved Filling

                         Porcelain          3.25#    22.4#      4

Silver-palladium

  alloys               Alborium            14.4      99       144

                       Hvitstop            15.2     105       144

                       Palliag H           15.8     109       144

Titanium                                   17.0     117       126

Tooth structures

  Dentin (bovine)

    Demineralized                           0.036     0.25    185

    Mineralized                             1.99     13.7     185

  Dentin (human)

    Demineralized                           0.038     0.26    185

    Mineralized                             2.13     14.7     185

  Enamel                                   12.2#     84.1#      4

                                           18.9     130       192

  Peridontal membrane

   (young calf)                           172psi      1.18MPa  65

Vitreous carbon                             3.5      24.1     117

Waxes

  Inlay casting, hard  Kerr blue hard       0.092#    0.634#   30

  Inlay casting, soft  Kerr blue regular    0.101#    0.696#   30

_________________________________________________________________



*   Measured in bending.

#   Measured in compression with optical strain gauge.

$   Measured in compression.

**  As cast.

##  Heat treated.

$$  Cord modulus in tension at 5% strain.

*** Measured with Shearheometer at setting time.


 

Flow

Flow is defined as the permanent strain of an elastic impression material when it is loaded in compression at a fixed stress (100 g on 12.7 x 19 mm cylinder) for 15 minutes at one hour after mixing. The method of testing is described in American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification no. 19 (ref. 73).
_________________________________________________________________

Material                  Product               Flow (%)     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Bite registration 
  material                Correct-Bite          0.00          155
Impression materials
  Alginate
    normal consistency    Jeltrate              3.6*           27
    thin consistency      Jeltrate              6.3*           27
    thick consistency     Jeltrate              2.7*           27
  Polyether               Impregum F            0.02          156
                          Permadyne
                            light               0.03          156
                            heavy               0.02          156
                          Polyjel NF            0.02          156
  Polysulfide             Coeflex
                            light               0.45          156
                            medium              0.45          156
                            heavy               0.42          156
  Silicone, addition      Absolute
                            light               0.03          156
                            medium              0.02          156
                            heavy               0.02          156
                            putty               0.03          156
                          Baysilex              0.04          156
                          Exaflex Hydrophilic
                            light               0.05          156
                            medium              0.03          156
                          Examix Hydrophilic
                            light               0.03          156
                            medium              0.01          156
                            monophase           0.00          155
                          Express Hydrophilic
                            light               0.03          156
                            medium              0.02          156
                            putty               0.09          156
                          Hydrosil              0.02          156
                          Imprint               0.03          156
                          Mirror 3 Extrude
                            light               0.03          156
                            medium              0.02          156
                            putty               0.03          156
                          Omnisil
                            light               0.02          156
                            medium              0.02          156
                            putty               0.07          156
                          Permagum
                            light               0.00          155
                            medium              0.00          155
                            heavy               0.02          155
                          President
                            light               0.01          156
                            heavy               0.01          156
                            putty               0.01          156
                          Reprosil Hydrophilic
    .                       light               0.02          156
                            medium              0.02          156
                            heavy               0.02          156
                            putty               0.02          156
  Silicone, condensation  Coltex
                            light               0.11          156
                            medium              0.15          156
                          Coltoflax             0.08          156
                          Cuttersil
                            light               0.02          155
                            medium              0.04          155
                          Elasticon
                            light               0.03          155
                            heavy               0.00          155
                          Rapid
                            light               0.01          155
                            putty               0.01          155
_________________________________________________________________

* Measured at 6 min.
 




Heat of Fusion

The heat of fusion is the heat in calories required to convert 1 g of a material from the solid to the liquid state at the melting temperature. The equation for the calculation of heat of fusion is L = Q/m, where Q is the total heat absorbed and m is the mass of the substance.
_________________________________________________________________

                                       L          Temp.
Material             Product        (cal/g)      (deg. C)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Gutta-percha (pure)                   45.2         74         111
Ice                                   79.7          0           1
Mercury                                2.8        -38         130
Pure metals
  Chromium                            96         1875         130
  Copper                              50.6       1083         130
  Gold                                16.1       1063         130
  Nickel                              73.8       1453         130
  Palladium                           34.2       1552         130
  Platinum                            26.9       1769         130
  Silver                              25          961         130
  Zinc                                24.09       420         130
Waxes
  Beeswax            Ross Co.         42.8         62.8        67
  Carnauba           Ross Co.         45.5         82.8        67
  Inlay casting      Kerr blue hard   45.9         60.0        67
  Paraffin           Ross Co.         42.4         52.0        67
_________________________________________________________________
 

 

 

Heat of Reaction

The heat of reaction represents the difference in the enthalpies of the reaction products and reactants at constant pressure and at a definite temperature, with every substance in a definite physical state. If heat is liberated in the reaction, the process is said to be exothermic and heat of reaction is a negative number. If heat is absorbed, the process is endothermic and heat of reaction is a positive number.

_________________________________________________________________

                                           Heat of reaction
Material       Reaction                     (Kcal/g-mole)     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Denture resin
  acrylic      Methyl methacrylate
                 to polymethyl methacrylate       -13.9        88
Gypsum         Calcium sulfate hemihydrate + water
                 to calcium sulfate dihydrate      -3.9        87
_________________________________________________________________
 



Impact strength, IZOD

Impact strength is a measure of the energy required to cause a material to fracture when struck by a sudden blow (high rate of deformation).
_________________________________________________________________

Material                 Product             IZOD (J/m)      Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Denture resins
  Cold-cured             PERform                 15          218
  Heat-cured             Lucitone 199            27-31       218
                         Perma-cryl 20           14          218
  Light-cured            Triad                   13          218
_________________________________________________________________
 



Index of Refraction

The index of refraction for any substance is the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to its velocity in the substance.
_________________________________________________________________

                         Extraordinary         Ordinary
                           index of            index of
Material                   refraction         refraction     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________
Filler particles for
    dental composites
  Barium borosilicate                            1.554        158
  Quartz                                         1.540        158
  Strontium glass                                1.550        158
  Ytterbium trifluoride                          1.530        158
  Zirconium glass                                1.520        158
Fluorapatite, synthetic       1.630              1.633        103
Hydroxyapatite, synthetic     1.643              1.649        104
Monomers
  Bisphenol-A-glycidyl 
    dimethacrylate                               1.545        168
  2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate                    1.448        168
  Triethyleneglycol dimethacylate                1.457        168
  Urethane dimethacrylate                        1.481        168
Porcelain, feldspathic                           1.504        147
Quartz                                           1.544        147
Tooth structure, enamel                          1.655        105
Water                                            1.333          1
_________________________________________________________________
 






Knoop Hardness Number, KHN

The Knoop hardness test is a micro-indentation method. A load is applied to a diamond indenting tool and the dimensions of the resulting indentation are measured. The Knoop hardness number is the ratio of the applied load to the area of the indentation.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                  KHN
Material                  Product             (kg/sq. mm)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Abrasives
  Aluminum oxide          E. C. Moore Co.       2100           70
  Flint (quartz)          E. C. Moore Co.        820           70
  Garnet                  E. C. Moore Co.       1360           70
  Silicon carbide         E. C. Moore Co.       2480           70
Cements (luting consistency)
  Resin                   C&B Metabond            12          160
                          Panavia EX              53          160
Cements (liners)
  Calcium hydroxide
    Light-cured           VLC Dycal                2.4        161
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured           Vitrabond                1.7        161
                          XR Ionomer               0.1        161
                          Zionomer                14-16       161
    Self-cured            GC Lining Cement         2.8        161
  Resin                   Cavalite                15          161
                          TimeLine                 7.3        161
Cobalt-chromium alloys    Advantage*             356          198
                          Advantage#             360          198
                          Cobond*                406          198
                          Cobond#                424          198
                          Genesis II*            329          198
                          Genesis II#            345          198
                          Master Tec*            345          198
                          Master Tec#            363          198
                          Niranium N/N           391           61
                          Novarex*               349          198
                          Novarex#               375          198
                          Novarex II*            352          198
                          Novarex II#            368          198
                          Vi-Comp*               386          198
                          Vi-Comp#               399          198
                          Vitallium              415           61
Denture resins
  Cold-cured              PERform                 16.2        218
  Heat-cured              Lucitone 199            14.0        218
                          Perma-cryl 20           16.5        218
  Light-cured             Triad                   17.6        218
Denture teeth
  Acrylic                 Dura-Blend              19.9         36
Gold (condensed)
  Foil                    Morgan, Hastings & Co.  69           32
  Mat                     Williams                52           32
  Powdered                Goldent                 55           32
Gold-alloy
  Au-Pd alloy             Olympia*               206          199
                          Olympia#               226          199
Iron-chromium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge        Dentillium C-B         331           61
  Partial denture         Dentillium P-D         335           61
Nickel-chromium alloys    Ceramalloy II*         314          199
                          Ceramalloy II#         270          199
                          MicroBond NP2*         207          199
                          MicroBond NP2#         153          199
                          Ticon*                 328          199
                          Ticon#                 256          199
Palladium-based dental
  alloys                  Microstar*             259          199
                          Microstar#             247          199
                          Spartan*               371          199
                          Spartan#               362          199
                          W-1*                   232          199
                          W-1#                   228          199
Pit and fissure sealants
  (24 hours)
  Light-cured             Delton LC               18          176
                          Helioseal               21          176
                          Pentra-Seal             19          176
                          Visioseal               16          176
  Self-cured              Delton                  14          176
Porcelain
  Feldspathic             B. F. Vacuum           591          100
Restorative materials
  Composite resin
    All-purpose           Brilliant               57          211
                          Charisma                43          211
                          Conquest DFC            63          211
                          Herculite XRV           69-71       162
                          Pertac Hybrid           60          211
                          Prisma APH              26          164
                          True Vitality           28          211
    Anterior              Helio Progress          46-48       162
                          Prisma Microfine        25          164
                          Silux Plus              28          163
                          Valux                   46          163
                          Visio Dispers           27          163
                          Visio Fil               45          163
    Posterior             Clearfil Photo 
                            Posterior             45          211
                          P 50                    60          163
                          Visio Molar             64          163
  Glass-ionomer           Chelon-Fil              31          165
                          Chemfil II              18          165
                          Fuji Ionomer II         18          165
  Metal-reinforced
    glass-ionomer         Chelon Silver           24          166
                          Miracle Mix             14          166
Tooth structures
  Calculus (on teeth)                             86           12
  Cementum                                        40           12
  Dentin                                          68           11
  Enamel (bovine)
    Etched                                        60-161      167
    Softened                                      79-145      167
    Sound                                        339-418      167
  Enamel (human)
    Etched                                        88-171      167
    Softened                                     149-179      167
    Sound                                        355-431      167
Vitreous carbon                                  820          117
_________________________________________________________________
 
 



Melting Temperatures and Ranges

The temperature at which a single element or compound transforms from a solid to a liquid is the melting temperature. Materials that are mixtures or alloys generally do not melt at a single temperature but possess a melting range. The lower temperature of the range is the solidus temperature, below which the material is solid. The higher temperature is the liquidus, above which the material is liquid. Within the melting range, both solid and liquid are present.
_________________________________________________________________

                                      Melting Temperature
Material              Product       (deg. F)       (deg. C)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________
Cobalt-chromium
  alloys           Genesis II       2415-2550      1325-1400    9
                      Master Tec    2215-2380      1215-1300  222
                      Novarex       2425-2475      1330-1337  223
Gold Alloys
  Type I              Ney-Oro A     1825-1900       996-1038    7
  Type II             Ney-Oro A-1   1650-1775       899- 968    7
  Type III            Ney-Oro B-2   1650-1775       899- 968    7
  Type IV             Ney-Oro G-3   1630-1740       888- 949    7
  40% Au-Ag-Cu        Forticast     1555-1665       846- 907    9
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd     Paliney No.4  1670-1810       910- 988    7
  Au-Pd               Olympia       2213-2380      1210-1304    9
  Au-Pt-Pd            TPW           2012-2282      1100-1250  196
  Porcelain-fused-
  to-metal            Jelenko O     2034-2206      1112-1208    9
Mercury                                -37           -38      130
Nickel-chromium
  alloy               Unimetal      2098-2282      1148-1250  196
Palladium-based
  dental alloys       Athenium      2120-2330      1160-1277  197
                      Legacy        2020-2360      1104-1293  197
                      Liberty       2020-2280      1104-1249  197
                      Microstar     2156-2336      1180-1280    9
                      PTM-88        2120-2340      1160-1282  197
                      Protocol      2320-2390      1271-1310  197
                      Spartan       2040-2120      1116-1160  197
                      W1            2165-2320      1185-1270  222
Pure metals
  Chromium                          3407           1875       130
  Copper                            1981           1083       130
  Gold                              1945           1063       130
  Nickel                            2647           1453       130
  Palladium                         2826           1552       130
  Platinum                          3217           1769       130
  Silver                            1761            961       130
  Titanium                          3035           1668       130
  Zinc                               787            420       130
Silver-palladium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge    Albacast      1870-2010      1021-1099    9
  Porcelain-fused-
     to-metal         Jel-5         2116-2341      1158-1283    9
Titanium-6Al-4V alloy               3002           1650       196
Waxe
  Beeswax             Ross Co.        93- 158        34-  70   68
  Carnauba            Ross Co.        27- 189        53-  87   68
  Inlay casting       Kerr blue hard 122- 176        50-  80   68
  Paraffin            Ross Co.       111- 140        44-  60   68
_________________________________________________________________
 




 

Mohs' Hardness

A material's Mohs' hardness value indicates the materials resistance to scratching. Diamond has a maximum Mohs' hardness of 10.
__________________________________________________________________

Material                              Mohs' hardness          Ref.
__________________________________________________________________

Abrasives
  Aluminum oxide                               9                1
  Boron carbide                             9-10                1
  Chalk (calcium carbonate)                    3                1
  Cuttlebone                                   7              238
  Diamond                                     10                1
  Garnet                                   6.5-7                1
  Gypsum                                       2                1
  Pumice                                       6                1
  Quartz                                       7                1
  Silicon carbide                           9-10                1
  Talc                                         1                1
  Tungsten carbide                             9                1
  Zirconium silicate                           7.5              1
Amalgam                                      4-5              238
Gold                                       2.5-3                1
Porcelain, feldspathic                       6-7              238
Restorative materials
  Composite resin                            5-7              238
Tooth structures  
  Dentin                                     3-4              238
  Enamel                                       5              238
__________________________________________________________________
 



 

Penetration Coefficient, PC

Definition: rate of penetration of a liquid into a capillary space. Units are cm/sec.

PC = (surface tension of liquid) x (cosine of the contact angle)
     ___________________________________________________________

                           2 x viscosity

_________________________________________________________________

                                                 PC
Material                 Product              (cm/sec)       Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Fluoride gels            Flura-Gel            0.0508          132
                         Luride               0.217           132
                         Predent              0.0870          132
                         Rafluor              0.115           132
Fluoride solutions       NaF Rinse         2350               132
Pit and fissure sealants
  Light-cured            Delton               5.18            176
                         Helioseal            1.72            176
                         Pentra-Seal          2.67            176
                         Visioseal            2.21            176
  Self-cured             Delton               4.90            176
_________________________________________________________________
 





Percent Elongation (Ductility)

Elongation is the deformation that results from the application of a tensile force and is calculated as the change in length divided by the original length. It is usually measured over a 5-cm gauge length.
_________________________________________________________________

                                           Percent elongation
                                            % in 5-cm gauge
Material                   Product               length      Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Cobalt-chromium alloys     Advantage*              3          198
                           Advantage#              4          198
                           Cobond*                 4          198
                           Cobond#                 3          198
                           Genesis II*             7          198
                           Genesis II#             6          198
                           Master Tec*             2          198
                           Master Tec#             3          198
                           Novarex*                2          198
                           Novarex#                1          198
                           Novarex II*             2          198
                           Novarex II#             2          198
                           Vi-Comp*                5          198
                           Vi-Comp#                4          198
                           Vitallium               1.5$        61
Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene
    fluoroelastomer        Novus                 240          153
  Silicone                 Molloplast-B          325          153
Gold (999.9 fine)          Wilkinson Co.          60.1**       96
Gold alloys
  Type I                   Ney-Oro A              29.5          7
  Type II                  Ney-Oro A-1            32            7
  Type III, soft           Ney-Oro B-2            35            7
  Type III, hard           Ney-Oro B-2            34            7
  Type IV, soft            Ney-Oro G-3            24            7
  Type IV, hard            Ney-Oro G-3             6.5          7
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, soft       Forticast              18            9
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, hard       Forticast               3            9
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, soft    Paliney No. 4          17            7
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, hard    Paliney No. 4           7            7
  Au-Pd                    Olympia*                8          199
                           Olympia#               12          199
  Au-Pt-Pd                 TPW                     9.2        196
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal               Jelenko O               5            9
Impression material
  Alginate                 Krompan               38##          81
Iron-chromium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge         Dentillium C-B          8.5$        61
  Partial denture          Dentillium P-D          9.0$        61
Maxillofacial materials
  Polyurethane             Epithane-3            224$         210
  Silicone rubber          A 102                 130$         210
                           A-2186                480          154
                           Cosmesil              588          154
                           MDX 4-4210            438          154
                           Medical Adhesive A    304$         210
                           Silastic 4-4515       476$         210
Mouth protector materials
  Polyvinyl acetate-
   Polyethylene            Proform              1000          125
                           Sta-guard            1150          125
Nickel-chromium alloys     Ceramalloy II*          6          199
                           Ceramalloy II#         11          199
                           Micro-Bond N/P2*       29          199
                           Micro-Bond N/P2#       35          199
                           Ticon*                  4          199
                           Ticon#                 12          199
                           Unimetal               12.2        196
Palladium-based 
  dental alloys            Athenium               25$$        197
                           Liberty                20$$        197
                           Legacy                 20$$        197
                           Microstar*              6          199
                           Microstar#             18          199
                           Protocol               34$$        197
                           PTM-88                 25$$        197
                           Spartan*                2          199
                           Spartan#                9          199
                           W-1*                    6          199
                           W-1#                   10          199
Silver-palladium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge, soft   Albacast               10            9
  Crown-and-bridge, hard   Albacast                8            7
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal               Jel-5                  25            9
Titanium                                          13          131
Titanium, 6 Al, 4 V alloy                          5          131
_________________________________________________________________

*   As cast
#   Heat treated.
$   Measured on 2.5-cm gauge length.
**  Measured on 0.64-cm gauge length.
##  Measured on 10-cm gauge length; head speed, 50 cm/min.
$$  Measured on 1.5-cm gauge length.
 





Permanent Deformation

Permanent deformation is the lack of recovery from deformation of an elastic impression or duplicating material compressed at a fixed strain, usually for 30 seconds. The method of testing is dscribed in American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification nos. 11, 18, 19, 20 (ref. 73). The trend is to report percent recovery rather than permanent deformation. Therefore a material with a permanent deformation of 1% has a 99% recovery.
_________________________________________________________________

                                              Permanent
Material                   Product         deformation(%)*   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Bite registration 
  material                 Correct-Bite          0.7          155
Duplicating material
  Agar                     Nobiloid              2.4#          60
Impression materials
  Agar                     Surgident             1.8#          60
  Alginate, 6 min.         Jeltrate              2.2           27
  Polyether                Impregum F            1.10         156
                           Permadyne
                             light               1.52         156
                             heavy               1.70         156
                           Polyjel NF            0.99         156
  Polysulfide              Coeflex
                             light               4.13         156
                             medium              4.39         156
                             heavy               5.55         156
                           Permlastic
                             light               2.90         157
                             medium              2.28         157
                             heavy               2.81         157
  Silicone, addition       Absolute
                             light               0.26         156
                             medium              0.22         156
                             heavy               0.27         156
                             putty               0.40         156
                           Baysilex              0.17         156
                           Exaflex Hydrophilic
                             light               0.29         156
                             medium              0.43         156
                           Examix Hydrophilic
                             light               1.23         156
                             medium              0.63         156
                             monophase           0.14         155
                           Express Hydrophilic
                             light               0.42         156
                             medium              0.25         156
                             putty               0.51         156
                           Hydrosil              0.50         156
                           Imprint               0.41         156
                           Mirror 3 Extrude
                             light               0.23         156
                             medium              0.18         156
                             putty               0.30         156
                           Omnisil
                             light               0.17         156
                             medium              0.26         156
                             putty               0.35         156
                           Permagum
                             light               0.13         155
                             medium              0.11         155
                             heavy               0.12         155
                           President
                             light               0.05         156
                             medium              0.04         156
                             heavy               0.01         156
                             putty               0.24         156
                           Reprosil Hydrophilic
                             light               0.18         156
                             medium              0.16         156
                             heavy               0.15         156
                             putty               0.15         156
  Silicone, condensation   Coltex
                             light               1.18         156
                             medium              1.50         156
                           Coltoflax             1.41         156
                           CutterSil
                             light               1.20         155
                             medium              1.39         155
                           Elasticon
                             light               0.84         155
                             heavy               0.47         155
                           Rapid
                             light               1.73         155
                             putty               1.09         155
_________________________________________________________________

* Fixed strain, 12%, for 30 sec.
# Tested for 1 min.
 



Poisson's Ratio

Poisson's ratio is a measure of the simultaneous change in elongation and in cross-sectional area within the elastic range during a tensile or compressive test. During a tensile test, the reduction in cross-sectional area is proportional to the increase in length in the elastic range by a dimensionless factor, Poisson's ratio.

_________________________________________________________________



Material                   Product        Poisson's ratio    Ref.

_________________________________________________________________



Amalgam                                          0.35*         63

                                                 0.334*       113

Cements

  Zinc phosphate           Tenacin               0.35*         54

  Zinc silicophosphate     Dorcate               0.30*         54

Fluorapatite (mineral)                           0.28*         55

Gold alloys

  Au-Ag-Pd                                       0.33         192

  Au-Pd                                          0.33         193

Hydroxyapatite (synthetic)                       0.28*         55

Impression materials

  Polyether                Impregum              0.13$        194

  Silicone, addition       Baysilex Monophase    0.41$        194

                           Provil

                             medium              0.19$        194

                             heavy               0.44$        194

Nickel-chromium alloys     Ceramalloy            0.27         136

                           Microbond NP2         0.24         136

                           Pentillium            0.32         136

Polymers

  Acrylic                                     0.37-0.45#      102

  Polycarbonate                               0.41-0.44#      102

  Polyethylene                                0.54-0.61#      102

Porcelain                  Ceramco               0.19         135

                           Vita                  0.19         135

Restorative materials

  Acrylic                  Sevriton              0.35*        116

  Composite resin          Adaptic               0.24*        116

Silicate                   Syntrex               0.30*         54

Titanium                                         0.33         192

Tooth and supporting structures

  Bone

    Cancellous                                   0.30         195

    Cortical                                     0.30         195

  Cementum                                       0.31         195

  Dentin                                         0.31         195

  Enamel                                         0.33         195

  Periodontal Ligament                           0.45         195

_________________________________________________________________



*  Measured by ultrasonic method.

#  Measured in tension with transverse strain gauge extensometers.

$  Measured by dynamic method.
 




Proportional Limit, PL

The proportional limit is defined as the greatest stress that a material will sustain without a deviation from the law of proportionality of stress to strain. Unless indicated otherwise, values are for tests in tension.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                    PL
Material               Product          (psi x 1000) (MPa)   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Crown-and-bridge resins
  Acrylic                 Biotone            6.9*     47.6*    23
  Polyester               Mer-Don 7          4.95*    34.1*    23
  Polyvinyl acrylic       Luxene             8.12*    56.0*    23
Duplicating material
  Agar                    Nobiloid           0.051#    0.35#   60
Gold alloys
  Type I                  Ney-Oro A         10        69        7
  Type II                 Ney-Oro A-1       27.5     190        7
  Type III, soft          Ney-Oro B-2       32.0     221        7
  Type III, hard          Ney-Oro B-2       38.0     262        7
  Type IV, soft           Ney-Oro G-3       41.5     286        7
  Type IV, hard           Ney-Oro G-3       83.0     572        7
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, soft   Paliney No.4      63.5     438        7
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, hard   Paliney No.4      84.5     583        7
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal              Ceramco O         60.8     419        6
Impression materials
  Agar                    Surgident          0.095#    0.66#   60
Nickel-chromium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge        Howmedica III     28.0     193      110
  Porcelain-fused-
     to-metal             Ultratek           9.0     545        6
Silicate                  Improved Filling
                            Porcelain       19.6$    135$       4
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                    24.2**   167**      4
  Enamel (cusp)                             51.2**   353**      4
Waxes
  Inlay casting, hard     Kerr blue hard     0.501##   3.46##  30
  Inlay casting, soft     Kerr blue regular  0.634##   4.37##  30
_________________________________________________________________

*  Tested in compression, head speed 0.05 cm/min.
#  Tested in compression, head speed 25 cm/min.
$  Tested in compression, head speed 0.04 cm/min.
** Tested in compression.
## Tested in compression, head speed 0.50 cm/min.






Shear Strength, S

The shear strength is defined as the maximum stress that a material can withstand before failure in shear. Calculation of shear strength depends upon the test method.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                   S*
Material               Product           (psi x 1000) (MPa)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam                     New True
                              Dentalloy      27.3     188      93
Cements (base consistency)
  Polymer-modified ZOE      B & T             1.85     12.7    76
Cements (luting consistency)
  Polymer-modified ZOE      Fynal             1.85     12.7    76
  Unmodified ZOE                              0.60      4.1    91
  Zinc phosphate                              1.90     13.1    91
                                              9.17     63.4   139
  Zinc polycarboxylate      Durelon           3.96     27.4   139
                            Poly F            4.44     30.7   139
Denture resins
  Acrylic                   Kallodent        17.8     122      93
Porcelains
  Feldspathic               Ceramco Opaque   18       128     120
  Aluminous                 Vita Aluminous   24       165     120
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                     20.0     138      93
    Vital                                    17.1     118     138
    Vital, constrained                       19.4     134     138
    Non-vital (endodontically treated)       14.8     102     138
  Enamel                                     13.1      90.2    93
_________________________________________________________________

* Tested by punch method
 



Shore A Hardness

The relative hardness of elastic materials such as rubber or soft plastics can be determined with an instrument called a Shore A durometer. If the indenter completely penetrates the sample, a reading of 0 is obtained, and if no penetration occurs, a reading of 100 results. The reading is dimensionless.

_________________________________________________________________

Material                    Product       Shore A hardness   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene
    fluoroelastomer         Novus                 50          153
  Silicone                  Molloplast-B          43          153
Impression materials
  Polyether                 Impregum              58.0*       150
  Polysulfide               Permlastic
                              light               13.0*       150
                              medium              24.2*       150
                              heavy               34.2*       150
  Silicone, addition        President
                              medium              62.5*       150
                              putty               77.4*       150
                            Provil
                              light               43.7*       150
                              heavy               59.3*       150
  Silicone, condensation    Optosil Plus          66.0*       150
                            Xantopren blue        43.9*       150
Maxillofacial materials
  Polyurethane              Epithane-3            46.6*       210
  Silicone rubber           A-102                 38.3*       210
                            A-2186                24.6*       154
                            Cosmesil              30.4*       154
                            MDX 4-4210            24.0*       154
                            Medical Adhesive A    29.4*       210
                            Silastic 4-4515       50.2*       210
Mouth protector materials
  Polyvinyl acetate-
    polyethylene            Proform               82           37
                            Sta-Guard             67           37
_________________________________________________________________

*  Measured at 24 hours.
 



Solubility and Disintegration in Water

Solubility and disintegration are measured by suspending two disks 20 mm in diameter, representing approximately 1260 sq. mm of exposed surface, for 24 hours in distilled water at 37 deg. C.
_________________________________________________________________

                         Product        Mass     Solubility
Material                                Loss (%)  (mg/sq cm) Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene
    fluoroelastomer      Novus                        0.03$   226
  Silicone               Molloplast-B                 0.13$   226
Cements
  (base consistency)
  Polymer-modified ZOE   B & T         0.06*                   76
Cements
  (luting  consistency)
  EBA-alumina ZOE                      0.05*                   79
  Glass-ionomer          Fuji I        0.08*                  228
                         Ketac-Cem     0.40*                  228
  Polymer-modified ZOE   Fynal         0.08*                   76
  Resin                  Comspan       0.017*                 233
  Unmodified ZOE         Temporary
                           Cement      0.10*                   79
                         Temporary
                           Cement                     0.39*    74
  Zinc hydrophosphate    New Calmix    0.4*                    75
  Zinc phosphate         Flecks Cement 0.025*                 233
                         Flecks Cement                0.82#    77
  Zinc polycarboxylate   Durelon      <0.04*                   78
                         Durelon                      0.81#    77
  Zinc silicophosphate   Kryptex
                           Improved    1.0$                    62
Cements (liners)
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured          Vitrebond     3.6*                   229
                         XR Ionomer    1.5*                   229
    Self-cured           GC lining
                           Cement                     0.50*   228
                         Ketac-cem     0.023*                 223
Periodontal dressings    Barricaid     0.54                   232
                         COEpak        1.5                    232
                         PerioCare     2.7                    232
Pit and fissure sealants
  Light-cured            Nuva-Seal                    0.5$    115
  Self-cured             9075                         0.2$    115
Restorative materials
  Glass-ionomer          Fuji II                      0.07*   228
                         Ketac-Fil                    0.10*   228
  Metal-reinforced
    glass-ionomer        Ketac-Silver                 0.12*   228
Silicate                 New Improved
                           Filling Porcelain          2.09*    74
_________________________________________________________________

*  Stored for 1 day.
#  Stored for 5 days.
$  Stored for 7 days.
 




Specific Heat

The specific heat of a substance is the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of a unit mass of the substance 1 deg. C. Water usually is chosen as a standard substance and 1 g as a standard mass.
_________________________________________________________________

                                           Specific heat
Material                   Product        [Cal/(g deg. C)]   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Bones
  Cancellous                                     0.44         192
  Cortical                                       0.44         192
Cements
  Calcium hydroxide        Dycal                 0.429        206
                           Life                  0.346        206
  Glass-ionomer            Base cement           0.273*       205
                           Dentin cement         0.275*       205
                           Ketac-Cem             0.293*       205
  Polymer-modified ZOE     IRM                   0.178#        24
  Unmodified ZOE                                 0.138$        24
                           Cavitec               0.421        206
  Zinc phosphate           Tenacin               0.122**       24
Gold alloy
  Au-Ag-Pd alloy                                 0.03         192
Hydroxyapatite                                   0.21         192
Impression materials (polymerized)
  Polyether                Impregum              0.502        207
  Silicone, addition       Baysilex              0.229        207
                           Provil
                             medium              0.256        207
                             high                0.227        207
Mercury                                          0.033        130
Pure metals
  Chromium                                       0.11##       130
  Copper                                         0.092##      130
  Gold                                           0.0312$$     130
  Nickel                                         0.105##      130
  Palladium                                      0.0584***    130
  Platinum                                       0.0314***    130
  Silver                                         0.0559***    130
  Titanium                                       0.124##      130
  Zinc                                           0.0915##     130
Restorative materials
  Acrylic                  Bonfil                0.280         24
  Composite resin          Adaptic               0.197         24
Silicate                   Improved Filling
                              Porcelain          0.167$        24
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                         0.28          14
                                                 0.31         206
                                                 0.38          41
  Enamel                                         0.18          14
Vitreous carbon                                  0.30         117
Water                                            1.00           1
Zinc oxide                 USP grade             0.095         24
_________________________________________________________________

*    Powder/liquid ratio, 1.0 g/ml.
#    Powder/liquid ratio, 5.0 g/ml.
$    Powder/liquid ratio, 3.0 g/ml.
**   Powder/liquid ratio, 2.5 g/ml.
##   At 20 deg. C.
$$   At 18 deg. C.
***  At  0 deg. C.
 


Strain in Compression

Strain in compression or flexibility of an elastomeric impression or duplicating material is measured between stresses of 100 and 1000 g/sq. cm (ca. 0.01 and 0.1 MPa). The method of testing is described in American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification nos. 11, 18, 19, and 20 (ref. 73).
_________________________________________________________________

                                             Strain in
Material                   Product        compression (%)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________
Bite registration 
  material                 Correct-Bite      0.9-1.3          155
Duplicating materials
  Agar                     Multi-Gel            14.5           80
Impression materials
  Alginate
    normal consistency     Jeltrate             13.4           27
    thin consistency       Jeltrate             18.5           27
    thick consistency      Jeltrate             10.1           27
  Polyether                Impregum F            1.93         156
                           Permadyne
                             light               3.31         156
                             heavy               2.91         156
                           Polyjel NF            2.65         156
  Polysulfide              Coeflex
                             light               13.5         156
                             medium              13.9         156
                             heavy               11.1         156
                           Permlastic
                             light               11.8         157
                             medium              10.2         157
                             heavy                6.2         157
  Silicone, addition       Absolute
                             light                3.59        156
                             medium               2.42        156
                             heavy                2.64        156
                             putty                1.55        156
                           Baysilex               4.60        156
                           Exaflex Hydrophilic
                             light                5.17        156
                             medium               4.65        156
                           Examix Hydrophilic
                             light                5.77        156
                             medium               5.25        156
                             monophase            2.81        155
                           Express Hydrophilic
                             light                5.32        156
                             medium               4.64        156
                             putty                5.90        156
                           Hydrosil               1.88        156
                           Imprint                2.71        156
                           Mirror 3 Extrude
                             light                5.76        156
                             medium               4.0         156
                             putty                2.53        156
                           Omnisil
                             light                4.95        156
                             medium               4.72        156
                             putty                1.62        156
                           Permagum
                             light                2.94        155
                             medium               2.06        155
                             heavy                2.44        155
                           President
                             light                3.5         156
                             medium               2.6         156
                             heavy                2.2         156
                             putty                1.7         156
                           Reprosil Hydrophilic
                             light                4.1         156
                             medium               3.6         156
                             heavy                2.6         156
                             putty                1.7         156
  Silicone, condensation   Coltex
                             light               11.1         156
                             medium               5.66        156
                           Coltoflax              2.13        156
                           CutterSil
                             light                3.66        155
                             medium               6.29        155
                           Elasticon
                             light                6.37        155
                             heavy                7.77        155
                           Rapid
                             light                4.98        155
                             putty                1.66        155
_________________________________________________________________
 





Surface Free Energy

The surface free energy is defined as the work required to increase the area of a substance by 1 sq. cm.
_________________________________________________________________

                                        Surface free energy
Material                      Product      (ergs/sq. cm)     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Bacteria
  A. odontolyticus A7-1                        106            200
  A. viscosus C7-4                             111            200
  S. mutans C7-3                               128            200
  S. salivarius B3-4                           113            200
  S. sanguis C7-2                               99            200
Polymers
  Polyethylene                                  33.5           71
  Poly(methyl methacrylate)                     36.5           71
  Polystyrene                                   38.0           71
  Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)   Teflon            24.0           71
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                        92            200
  Enamel                                        87            200
Wax
  Paraffin                                      25.0           71
_________________________________________________________________
 





Surface Tension

Surface tension is a measure of the surface free energy of a liquid and is defined as the force acting along the surface of a liquid at right angles to any line 1 cm in length.
_________________________________________________________________
 
                                   Surface tension    Temp.
Material                Product       (dynes/cm)    (deg. C)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Blood                                    55.5-61.2            85
Mercury                                   483.5        25     49
Polymers
  Polyetherurethane  Pellethane 80A        24.0              170
                     Pellethane 55D        24.8              170
                     Pellethane 75D        32.3              170
  Polyetherurethane
    urea             Biomer                33.9              170
Porcelain            Ceramco Undercoat A  366        1038     47
Saliva                                     53          37     48
Water                                      72.3        25     50
_________________________________________________________________
 



Tear Energy

The tear energy is a measure of the energy per unit area of newly torn surface and is calculated from the load required to propagate a tear in a trouser-shaped specimen.
_________________________________________________________________

                                            Tear energy
Material                  Product         (M ergs/sq. cm)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene
    fluoroelastomer       Novus                 23*           153
  Silicone                Molloplast - B         1.4*         153
Impression materials
  Alginate                Tissutex               0.4           98
                                                 0.066         18
  Polyether               Impregum F$            0.81*        213
                          Permadyne**            0.45*        213
                          Poly jel NF $          0.85*        213
  Polysulfide             Coe-flex               1.89*        213
                          Permlastic**           0.71*        213
  Silicone, addition      Absolute**             0.52*        213
                          Baysilex##             1.50*        213
                          Express**              0.65*        213
                          Extrude**              0.78*        213
                          Hydrosil$              0.63*        213
                          Panapren$              0.81*        213
                          Permagum**             0.64*        213
                          Reprosil**             0.60*        213
                          Unosil$                0.47*        213
Maxillofacial materials
  Polyurethane            Dermathane 100         1.8#          16
  Polyvinyl chloride      Sartomer Resins       11#            16
  Silicone rubber         Silastic 382           0.66#         16
                          Silastic 399           0.61#         16
_________________________________________________________________

*   Head speed, 5 cm/min.
#   Head speed, 2 cm/min.
$   Medium viscosity, monophase.
**  Low viscosity.
##  High viscosity, monophase.






Tear Strength

The tear strength is a measure of the resistance of a material to tear forces. The tear strength of a notched specimen is calculated by dividing the maximum load by the thickness of the specimen. A specimen suitable for measuring tear strength is described in American Dental Association Specification no. 20 (ref. 73).
_________________________________________________________________

                                             Tear strength
Material                  Product        (lbs/in)  (kg/cm)   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene
    fluoroelastomer       Novus            54*        9.7*    153
  Silicone                Molloplast-B     33*        5.9*    153
Duplicating material
  Agar                    Nobiloid          1.3#      0.232#   60
Impression materials
  Agar, tray              Surgident         5.68#     1.01#    27
  Alginate                Jeltrate          3.0#      0.536#   27
  Polyether               Impregum F       26.8$      4.80$   156
                          Permadyne
                            light          10.1$      1.80$   156
                            heavy          16.8$      3.00$   156
                          Polyjel NF       19.6$      3.50$   156
  Polysulfide             Coeflex
                            light          18.4$      3.29$   156
                            medium         19.9$      3.56$   156
  Silicone, addition      Absolute
                            light          15.7$      2.80$   156
                            medium         19.6$      3.50$   156
                          Baysilex         21.6$      3.86$   156
                          Exaflex Hydrophilic
                            light          15.9$      2.84$   156
                            medium         16.2$      2.90$   156
                          Examix Hydrophilic
                            light          15.7$      2.80$   156
                            medium         16.2$      2.90$   156
                            monophase      18.8$      3.36$   155
                          Express Hydrophilic
                            light          18.5$      3.30$   156
                            medium         18.5$      3.30$   156
                          Hydrosil         13.4$      2.40$   156
                          Imprint          21.8$      3.90$   156
                          Mirror 3 Extrude
                            light          12.3$      2.20$   156
                            medium         26.3$      4.70$   156
                          Omnisil
                            light          14.6$      2.60$   156
                            medium         10.4$      1.85$   156
                          Permagum
                            light          10.4$      1.85$   155
                            medium         28.4$      5.07$   155
                            heavy          29.5$      5.26$   155
                          President
                            light          15.1$      2.70$   156
                            medium         30.8$      5.50$   156
                          Reprosil Hydrophilic
                            light          14.3$      2.56$   156
                            medium         17.4$      3.10$   156
  Silicone, condensation  Coltex
                            light           8.96$     1.60$   156
                            medium         14.6$      2.61$   156
                          Cuttersil
                            light          15.1$      2.70$   155
                            medium         13.0$      2.33$   155
                          Elasticon
                            light          15.5$      2.76$   155
                            heavy          24.5$      4.37$   155
                          Rapid
                            light          18.3$      3.26$   155
Maxillofacial materials
  Polyurethane            Epithane-3       45*        8.1*    210
  Silicone rubber         A-102            23*        4.1*    210
                          A-2186          203*       36.2*    210
                                           40*        7.1*    154
                          Cosmesil         44*        7.8*    154
                          MDX 4-4210       23*        4.1*    154
                          Medical 
                            Adhesive A     70*       12.4*    210
                          Silastic 4-4515 104*       18.6*    210
Mouth protector materials
  Polyvinyl acetate-
    polyethylene           Proform        160#       28.6#    125
                           Sta-Guard      120#       21.4#    125
_________________________________________________________________

*  Head speed, 50 cm/min.
#  Head speed, 25 cm/min.
$  Head speed, 30 cm/min.
 


Thermal Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of a substance is the quantity of heat in cal/sec passing through a body 1 cm thick with a cross section of 1 sq. cm when the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the body is 1 deg. C.

_________________________________________________________________

                                       Thermal conductivity
                                           [mcal/(sec)
Material                    Product    (sq. cm)(deg. C/cm)]  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam                                         54.0          192
Alumina (recrystallized)                        38.7           20
Bones
  Cancellous                                     1.4          192
  Cortical                                       1.4          192
Cement (base consistency)
  Zinc phosphate            Tenacin              3.1           13
Cements (luting consistency)
  Glass-ionomer             Ketac-cem            1.5*         205
  Zinc phosphate            Tenacin              2.5           13
Cements (liners)
  Calcium hydroxide         Dycal                1.5          206
                            Life                 1.2          206
  Glass-ionomer             Base cement          1.6*         205
                            Dentin cement        1.3*         205
  Unmodified ZOE                                 1.4#          24
                            Cavitec              0.7          206
Denture resins
  Acrylic                                        0.37          82
  Polystyrene                                    0.22          82
Gold alloy
  Au-Ag-Pd alloy                               300            192
Gypsum                                           3.1          147
Hydroxyapatite                                   3.0          192
Impression materials (polymerized)
  Polyether                 Impregum             2.3          207
  Silicone, addition        Baysilex             1.0          207
                            Provil
                              medium             1.4          207
                              high               0.72         207
Mercury                                         19.6$         130
Porcelain (feldspathic)                          2.39          20
Pure metals
  Chromium                                     160**          130
  Copper                                       941**          130
  Gold                                         710**          130
  Nickel                                       220##          130
  Palladium                                   1680$$          130
  Platinum                                     165***         130
  Silver                                      1000$           130
  Titanium                                      10.0          192
  Zinc                                         270##          130
Restorative materials
  Acrylic                  Bonfil                0.38          24
  Composite resin          Adaptic               2.61          24
                                                 3.27         109
Silicate                    Improved Filling
                              Porcelain       1.78-1.86        13
                                                 0.82#         24
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                         1.36          41
  Enamel                                         2.23          41
Vitreous carbon                                 15            117
Water                                            1.42***        1
_________________________________________________________________

*    Powder/liquid ratio, 1.0 g/ml.
#    Powder/liquid ratio, 3.0 g/ml.
$    At 0 deg. C.
**   Near 20 deg. C.
##   At 25 deg. C.
$$   At 18 deg. C.
***  At 17 deg. C.

 

 

 

Thermal Diffusivity

The thermal diffusivity is a measure of transient heat flow and is defined as the thermal conductivity divided by the product of specific heat times density.
_________________________________________________________________

                                        Thermal diffusivity
Material                    Product         (sq. mm/sec)     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Amalgam                     Caulk Fine Cut       9.6          141
Cements
  Calcium hydroxide         Dycal                0.187        206
                                                 0.240        140
                            Life                 0.186        206
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured             Vitrabond            0.184        208
                            XR Ionomer           0.194        208
                            Zionomer             0.290        208
    Self-cured              Base cement          0.266*       205
                            Dentin cement        0.232*       205
                            Fuji                 0.262        139
                            Ketac-Bond           0.205        208
                            Ketac-Cem            0.239*       205
  Resin                     Time Line            0.174        208
  Unmodified ZOE                                 0.389#        24
                                                 0.471$       140
                            Cavitec              0.086        206
  Zinc phosphate            Tenacin              0.290$        24
                            Stratford Cookson    0.308**      140
  Zinc polycarboxylate      Poly-C               0.332        140
Gold (pure)                                    118            141
Impression materials
  Dental compound           Kerr                 0.226         34
  Polyether                 Impregum             0.43         207
  Silicone, addition        Baysilex             0.32         207
                            Provil
                              medium             0.38         207
                              high               0.22         207
Poly(methyl methacrylate)   Lucite               0.124        140
Restorative materials
  Acrylic                   Bonfil               0.123         24
                            Sevriton             0.125        140
  Composite resin           Adaptic              0.675         24
                                                 0.655        140
                            Adaptic##            0.725        139
                            Concise              0.338        139
                            Cosmic               0.310        139
                            Isopast              0.191        139
                            Profile              0.283        139
  Glass-ionomer             Fuji Type II         0.216        208
                            Improved Fuji
                              Type II            0.228        208
  Metal-reinforced
    glass-ionomer           Ketac Silver         0.516        208
                            Miracle Mix          0.407        208
Silicate                    Improved Filling
                              Porcelain          0.243#        24
                            Silicap              0.275        140
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                         0.183         41
                                                 0.258        206
  Enamel                                         0.469         41
_________________________________________________________________

*   Powder/liquid ratio, 1.0 g/ml.
#   Powder/liquid ratio, 3.0 g/ml.
$   Powder/liquid ratio, 2.5 g/ml.
**  Powder/liquid ratio, 1.85 g/ml.
##  Radiopaque.

 

 

 

Transverse Strength, T

The transverse strength, modulus of rupture, or flexural strength is obtained by supporting a bar or beam at each end, and loading it in the middle. This test is called a three pointing bending (3PB) test.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                  T
Material                 Product       (psi x 1000) (MPa)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Alumina (recrystallized)                   55.0     379        20
Amalgams (7 days)
  Admixed                Dispersalloy      17.7     122       186
                         Valiant PhD       20.6     142       186
  Spherical              Indiloy           19.5     134       186
                         Lojic             17.2     118       186
                         Sybraloy          17.3     119       186
                         Tytin             21.4     148       186
                         Valiant           21.1     146       186
Cements
  (luting consistency, 24 hrs.)
  Glass-ionomer          Fuji I            0.39       2.7     173
                         Ketac-cem 
                           Radiopaque      0.42       2.9     173
Cements (liners, 24 hrs.)
  Calcium hydroxide      Dycal             0.61       4.2     178
                         Life              0.38       2.6     178
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured          Vitrabond         3.51      24.2     179
                         XR Ionomer        2.55      17.6     179
    Self-cured           Baseline          1.68      11.6     173
                         Baseline in Caps  1.71      11.8     173
                         GC lining cement  0.20       1.4     173
                         Ketac-bond        0.45       3.1     173
                         Ketac-bond 
                           Capsule         0.96       6.6     173
                         3M Glass ionomer
                           liner           0.45       3.1     173
  Resin                  Cavalite          8.41      58.0     179
                         Timeline          9.27      63.9     179
Denture resins
  Cold-cured             PERform          12         84       218
  Heat-cured             Lucitone 199     11         78       218
                         Perma-cryl 20    12         86       218
  Light-cured            Triad            12         80       218
Gold (condensed)
  Foil                   Morgan,
                           Hastings & C   42.3      292        32
  Mat                    Williams         23.0      159        32
  Powdered               Goldent          23.6      163        32
Gypsum 
  Improved stone         Velmix            2.40      16.6      83
Investment
  Ethyl silicate,
    23-1000 deg. C       Hartex            0.071      0.49     84
  Gypsum bonded
    at 23 deg. C         Kerr Model        0.355      2.45     84
    at 600 deg. C        Kerr Model        0.014      0.10     84
  Phosphate bonded
    at 23 deg. C                           0.384      2.65     84
    at 1000 deg. C                         1.10       7.64     84
Porcelains
  Alumina-reinforced     HiCeram (core)   20.2      139       146
                         Vitadur-N (core) 17.9      123       146
  Castable ceramic       Dicor            18.1      125       146
  Ceramic-whisker-
    reinforced           Mirage           10         70       146
  Feldspathic
                         Ceramco II        8.9       61       146
                         Excelco           8.0       55       146
                         Vitadur-N(dentin) 9.1       62       146
                         Vita VMK 68       9.5       66       146
  Leucite-reinforced     Optec HSP        15        104       146
  Magnesia core
    Glazed                                39        270       189
    Untreated                             19        130       189
Restorative materials
  Composite resin        Herculite XRV    14.5       99.8     190
                         P-50             12.3       85.1     190
                         Silux Plus        8.9       61.4     190
                         Z-100            20.2      139.4     191
  Glass-ionomer          Chelon-fil        1.09       7.5     173
                         Chelon-silver     1.65      11.4     173
                         Chemfil II        1.35       9.3     173
                         Chemfil II 
                           in caps         3.63      25.0     173
                         Fuji II           0.51       3.5     173
                         Ketac-fil Capsule 1.49      10.3     173
                         Ketac-silver
                           Capsule         1.00       6.9     173
                                           4.76      31.8     191
Vitreous carbon                           22        152       117
_________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Ultimate Compressive Strength, C

The ultimate compressive strength is defined as the maximum stress that a material can withstand before failure in compression. It is determined by dividing the maximum load in compression by the original cross-sectional area of the test specimen.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                  C
Material                 Product      (psi x 1000) (MPa)     Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Alumina (recrystallized)                  316      2180        20
Amalgams (1h)
  Admixed                Valiant Ph.D.     29.2     201       171
  Spherical              Tytin             29.7     205       171
                         Valiant           42.1     290       171
Amalgam (24 hrs)
  Admixed                Dispersalloy      61.3*    423*        3
                         Dispersalloy
                           fast set        56.1#    387#      142
                                           64.5$    445$      142
                           regular set     51.2#    353#      142
                                           62.8$    433$      142
                         Optaloy II        46.8#    323#      142
                                           50.9$    351$      142
  Lathe-cut              Caulk Fine Cut    45.0#    310#      142
                                           49.0$    338$      142
                         New True
                           Dentalloy       46.1*    318*        3
  Spherical              Indiloy           59.0#    407#      142
                                           60.3$    416$      142
                         Sybraloy          52.3#    361#      142
                                           57.4$    396$      142
Bones (human)
  Long bones
    Femur                                  24.2     167       172
    Humerus                                19.1     132       172
    Radius                                 16.5     114       172
    Tibia                                  23.1     159       172
  Vertebrae
    Cervical                                1.5      10       172
    Lumbar                                  0.73      5       172
Cements
  (base consistency, 24 hrs)
  Polymer-modified ZOE   B & T              5.52*    38.1*      2
  Zinc phosphate         Zinc Cement
                          Improved         23.3*    161*        2
  Zinc polycarboxylate   Durelon           11.5*     79.6*      2
                         PCA                9.93**    6.85**  124
Cements
  (luting consistency, 24 hrs)
  EBA-alumina ZOE        Opotow             9.32*    64.3*      2
                                            9.53     65.7      79
                                            6.5$$    45$$     145
  Glass-ionomer          Fuji I            17.4##   120##     173
                         Ketac-cem 
                           Radiopaque      17.7##   122##     173
  Non-eugenol zinc oxide Nogenol            0.587*    4.05*     2
  Polymer-modified ZOE   Fynal              7.31*    50.4*      2
                                            5.1$$    35$$     145
  Resin                  Panavia EX        25.9##   178##     174
  Unmodified ZOE         Temporary Cement   1.20*     8.28*    74
  Zinc hydrophosphate    New Calmix         9.56##   66.0##    75
  Zinc phosphate         Flecks             9.01##   62.1##   174
                         Modern Tenacin    11.2##    77.5##   174
  Zinc polycarboxylate   Durelon            9.78##   67.4##   174
                         Shofu              7.98##   55.0##   174
  Zinc silicophosphate   Kryptex Improved  24.8     171        62
Cements
  (liners, 24 hrs)
  Calcium hydroxide
    Light-cured          VLC Dycal         20.0***  138***    175
    Self-cured           Dycal              2.10***  14.5***  175
                         Life               3.87***  26.7***  178
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured          Fuji lining       24.7***  170.3***  235
                         Vitrabond         19.0***  130.9***  235
                                            8.24***  56.8***  175
                         XR Ionomer         9.28***  64.0***  175
                                            2.9***   20.0***  235
                         Zionomer           6.98     48.1     178
    Self-cured           Baseline           9.64##   66.5##   173
                         Baseline in caps  20.0##   138##     173
                         GC lining cement   8.44##   58.2##   173
                         Ketac-bond        17.0##   117##     173
                         Ketac-bond 
                           Capsule         20.6##   142##     173
                         3M Glass ionomer
                           liner            9.51##   65.6##   173
  Resin                  Timeline          22.2***  153***    175
  Unmodified ZOE         Cavitec            0.798*    5.50*     2
Crown-and-bridge resins
  Acrylic                Biotone           11.8##    81.4##    23
  Polyester              Mer-Don 7          8.65##   59.6##    23
  Polyvinyl acrylic      Luxene            12.0##    82.8##    23
Duplicating material
  Agar                   Nobiloid           0.052###  0.36###  60
Gypsum (dried)
  Improved stone         Velmix            11.7$$$   80.7$$$   31
  Plaster                Calspar            3.40$$$  23.4$$$   31
  Stone                  Calestone          8.70$$$  60.0$$$   31
Impression materials
  Agar                   Surgident          0.11###   0.76###  60
  Alginate (6 min)       Jeltrate           0.12###   0.82###  27
  Polysulfide (8 min)    Rubberjel          0.28###   1.93###  27
Porcelains
  Feldspathic            Trubyte
                           Bioform 2100    21.6**** 149****    22
  Fused to metal         Ceramco Opaque    21.7**** 150****    22
Restorative materials
  Composite resin
    All-purpose          Brilliant         40.6##   280##     211
                         Charisma          42.5##   293##     211
                         Conquest DFC      42.9##   296##     211
                         Heliomolar 
                           Radiopaque      49.3     340       158
                         Herculite XR      57.6     397       158
                         Herculite XRV     35.7##   246##     211
                         Marathon          43.4     299       158
                         P-50 APC          57.3     395       158
                         Pertac Hybrid     47.9##   330##     211
                         Prisma APH        55.5     383       158
                         True Vitality     27.4##   189##     211
                         Z-100             65.0     448       158
    Anterior             Durafill          67.2     463       158
                         Helio Progress    47.9     330       158
                         Prisma Microfine  38.0     262       158
                         Silar             41.0     283       158
                         Silux             49.9     344       158
                         Valux             62.4     430       158
                         Visio Dispers     66.0     455       158
                         Visio Fil         50.8     350       158
    Posterior            Clearfil 
                           Photoposterior  42.6##   294##     211
                         Heliomolar        47.1     325       158
                         Occlusin          50.5     348       158
                         P10               56.6     390       158
                         Post Comp II LC   50.0     345       158
  Glass-ionomer          Chelon-fil        22.4##   155##     173
                         Chemfil II        28.6##   198##     173
                         Chemfil II 
                           in caps         19.7##   136##     173
                         Fuji II           23.0##   159##     173
                         Ketac-fil 
                           Capsule         22.1##   152##     173
  Metal-reinforced
    glass-ionomer        Chelon-silver     18.1##   125##     173
                         Ketac-silver 
                           Capsule         16.3##   113##     173
                         Miracle mix       18.7##   129##     234
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                   43.1     297         5
  Enamel (cusp)                            55.7     384         4
Vitreous carbon                           100       690       117
Waxes
  Inlay casting, hard    Kerr blue hard     0.94##    6.48##   30
  Inlay casting, soft    Kerr blue regular  1.13##    7.79##   30
_________________________________________________________________

*     Head speed, 0.02 cm/min.
#     Head speed, 0.025 cm/min, Hand triturated.
$     Head speed, 0.025 cm/min, Mechanically triturated.
**    Head speed, 0.5 cm/min.
##    Head speed, 0.05 cm/min.
$$    Head speed, 0.01 cm/min.
***   Head speed, 0.1 cm/min.
###   Head speed, 25 cm/min.
$$$   Head speed, 0.15 cm/min.
****  Head speed, 0.12/cm/min.

 

 

Ultimate Tensile Strength, UTS

The ultimate tensile strength is defined as the maximum stress that a material can withstand before failure in tension. Unless indicated otherwise, values were determined by an extension test.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                    UTS
Material                    Product     (psi x 1000)   (MPa)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Alumina (recrystallized)                     17.2*   119*      20
Amalgam (7 days)
  Admixed                   Dispersalloy      6.94*   47.9*    53
                            Phasealloy        3.96*   27.3*   177
                            Valiant PhD       4.68*   32.2*   177
  Lathe-cut                 New True
                              Dentalloy       7.93*   54.7*    53
Bones (human)
  Long bones
    Femur                                    17.5    121      172
    Humerus                                  18.9    130      172
    Radius                                   21.6    149      172
    Tibia                                    20.3    140      172
  Vertebrae
    Cervical                                  0.45     3.1    172
    Lumbar                                    0.54     3.7    172
Cements
  (base consistency, 24 hrs)
  Polymer-modified ZOE      B & T             0.500*   3.45*    2
  Zinc phosphate            Zinc Cement
                              Improved        1.20*    8.3*     2
  Zinc polycarboxylate      Durelon           2.25*   15.5*     2
                            PCA               1.00*    6.92*  124
Cements
  (luting consistency, 24 hrs)
  EBA-alumina ZOE           Opotow            1.03*    7.12*    2
  Glass-ionomer             Fuji I            0.80*    5.5*   173
                            Ketac-cem 
                              Radiopaque      0.65*    4.5*   173
  Non-eugenol zinc oxide    Nogenol           0.157*   1.08*    2
  Polymer-modified ZOE      Fynal             0.603*   4.16*    2
  Resin                     Panavia EX        6.54*   45.1*   174
  Zinc phosphate            Flecks            1.35*    9.3*   174
                            Modern Tenacin    1.38*    9.5*   174
  Zinc polycarboxylate      Durelon           2.19*   15.1*   174
                            Shofu             1.57*   10.8*   174
Cements (liners, 24 hrs)
  Calcium hydroxide         Dycal             0.33*    2.3*   178
                            Life              0.35*    2.4*   178
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured             Fuji Lining LC    2.06*   14.2*   235
                            Vitrabond         1.83*   12.6*   179
                            XR Ionomer        1.07*    7.4*   179
                                              0.32*    2.2*   235
                            Zionomer          0.55*    3.8*   178
    Self-cured              Baseline          0.90*    6.2*   173
                            Baseline in caps  1.52*   10.5*   173
                            GC lining cement  0.57*    3.9*   173
                            Ketac-bond        0.84*    5.8*   173
                            Ketac-bond 
                              Capsule         1.60*   11.0*   173
                            3M Glass ionomer
                              liner           0.33*    2.3*   173
  Resin                     Cavalite          3.33*   23.0*   179
                            Timeline          2.04*   14.1*   179
  Unmodified ZOE            Cavitec           0.062*   0.43*    2
Cobalt - chromium alloys    Advantage###     99.4****685****  198
                            Advantage$$$     95.7****660****  198
                            Cobond###       111.9****772****  198
                            Cobond$$$       113.9****785****  198
                            GenesisII###     93.9****647****  198
                            GenesisII$$$     86.9****599****  198
                            Master Tec###   103.0****710****  198
                            Master Tec$$$   108.9****751****  198
                            Novarex###       97.7****674****  198
                            Novarex$$$      101.8****702****  198
                            NovarexII###     93.4****644****  198
                            NovarexII$$$     95.4****658****  198
                            ViComp###        98.8****681****  198
                            ViComp$$$       104.2****718****  198
                            Vitallium       126      869       61
Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene
    fluoroelastomer         Novus             0.534$   3.68$  153
  Silicone                  Molloplast-B      0.634$   4.37$  153
Denture resins
  Acrylic                   Kallodent 333    11.6#    80.4#    90
  Polyvinylacrylic          Luxene T75       12.2#    84.3#    90
Gold (999.9 fine)           Wilkinson Co.    15.6    108       96
Gold (condensed)
  Foil                                        7.35    50.7     33
  Mat                                         3.60    24.8     33
  Powdered                  Goldent           6.76    46.6     33
Gold alloys
  Type I                    Ney-Oro A        32.0    221        7
  Type II                   Ney-Oro A-1      55.0    379        7
  Type III, soft            Ney-Oro B-2      61.0    421        7
  Type III, hard            Ney-Oro B-2      65.0    448        7
                            Sjoding C-3      66.3    457      144
  Type IV, soft             Ney-Oro G-3      68.0    469        7
  Type IV, hard             Ney-Oro G-3     110      759        7
                            Sjoding D       101      699      144
  64% Au-Ag-Cu, hard        Begolloyd G      80.5    555      144
  48% Au-Ag-Cu, hard        Midigold         90.8    626      144
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, soft        Forticast        85      586        9
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, hard        Forticast       129      890        9
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, soft     Paliney No. 4    81.0    559        7
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, hard     Paliney No. 4   106      731        7
  Au-Pd                     Olympia###       88.6****611****  199
                            Olympia$$$       97.5****672****  199
  Au-Pt-Pd                  TPW              38.1    263      196
  Porcelain-fused-to-metal  Jelenko O        73      503        9
Gutta-percha                Indian Head       2.80    19.3     28
                            Mynol             2.40    16.6     28
Gypsum (dried)
  Improved stone            Velmix            1.11*    7.66*   31
  Plaster                   Calspar           0.600*   4.14*   31
  Stone                     Calestone         0.820*   5.66*   31
Impression materials
  Alginate                  Krompan           0.034$   0.24$   81
  Polyether                 Impregum          0.300$   2.07$  180
                            Reprosil
                              medium          0.287$   1.98$  180
                            Permadyne
                              light           0.122##  0.841##181
                              heavy           0.180##  1.24## 181
  Polysulfide
    Copper hydroxide cured  Omniflex          0.135$   0.929$ 180
    Lead dioxide cured      Coeflex           0.165$   1.14$  180
  Silicone, addition        Express
                              light           0.174##  1.20## 181
                              medium          0.269##  1.85## 181
                              putty           0.092##  0.634##181
                            Mirror 3 Extrude
                              light           0.193##  1.33## 181
                              medium          0.232##  1.60## 181
                              putty           0.330##  2.28## 181
  Silicone, condensation    Citricon
                              light           0.142##  0.979##181
                              putty           0.348##  2.40## 181
                            Rapid
                              light           0.222##  1.53## 181
                              putty           0.191##  1.32## 181
Iron-chromium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge          Dentillium C-B  134      924       61
  Partial denture           Dentillium P-D  122      841       61
Maxillofacial materials
  Polyurethane####          Epithane-3        0.12     0.83   210
  Silicone rubber           A-102             0.28#### 1.9####210
                            A-2186            0.73$    5.0$   154
                            Cosmesil          0.73$    5.0$   154
                            MDX 4-4210        0.57$    4.0$   154
                            Medical 
                              Adhesive A      0.16#### 1.1####210
                            Silastic 4-4515   1.38#### 9.5####210
Mouth protector materials
  Polyvinyl acetate-
   polyethylene####         Proform           1.06     7.31   125
                            Sta-guard         0.46     3.17   125
Nickel-chromium alloys      CeramalloyII### 114.6****790****  199
                            CeramalloyII$$$ 103.0****710****  199
                            Microbond NP2### 73.3****505****  199
                            Microbond NP2$$$ 71.5****493****  199
                            Ticon###        116.4****803****  199
                            Ticon$$$         96.7****667****  199
                            Unimetal        119.9    827      196
  Crown-and-bridge          Howmedica III    61.0    421      110
  Partial denture           Ticonium 100    117      807        8
  Porcelain-fused-to-metal  Ultratek        133      917        6
Palladium-based dental 
  alloys****                Microstar###    100.8    695      199
                            Microstar$$$    106.7    736      199
                            Spartan###      165.5   1141      199
                            Spartan$$$      163.2   1125      199
                            W-1###          103.6    714      199
                            W-1$$$          105.0    724      199
Polymers
  Polyetherurethane         Pellethane 
                              2363-80A        7.21**  49.7**  182
  Polyetherurethane urea    Biomer            7.28**  50.2**  182
  Poly (methyl methacrylate)                  8.48*** 58.5*** 183
Porcelains
  Feldspathic               Trubyte
                               Bioform 2100   3.60    24.8     22
  Fused to metal            Ceramco Opaque    5.40    37.2     22
Restorative materials
  Composite resin
    All-purpose             Brilliant         5.80*   40*     211
                            Charisma          5.95*   41*     211
                            Conquest DFC      7.54*   52*     211
                            Herculite XRV     5.66*   39.0*   184
                            Pertac Hybrid     6.24*   43*     211
                            True Vitality     4.64*   32*     211
                            Z100              7.89*   54.4*   184
    Anterior                Multifil VS       6.16*   42.5*   212
                            Prisma Fil        8.47*   58.4*   212
                            Silux Plus        5.86*   40.4*   212
    Posterior               Clearfil Photo
                              Posterior       6.53*   45*     211
                            Coltene D1        6.54*   45.1*   212
                            Ful Fil           8.67*   59.8*   212
                            Heliomolar        5.99*   41.3*   212
                            Marathon One      5.41*   37.3*   184
                            P10               9.25*   63.8*   212
  Glass-ionomer             Chelon-fil        1.46*   10.1*   173
                            Chemfil II        1.80*   12.2*   173
                            Chemfil II 
                              in caps         1.87*   12.9*   173
                            Fuji II           1.26*    8.7*   173
                            Ketac-fil Capsule 2.03*   14.0*   173
  Metal-reinforced
    glass-ionomer           Chelon-silver     1.60*   11.0*   173
                            Ketac-silver 
                              Capsule         1.87*   12.9*   173
                            Miracle Mix       1.33*    9.2*   234
Silicate                                      0.630    4.34    92
Silver-palladium alloys     Alborium         88.6    611      144
                            Hvitstop         76.3    526      144
                            Palliag M        59.6    411      144
  Crown-and-bridge, soft    Albacast         63.0    434        9
  Crown-and-bridge, hard    Albacast         68.0    469        9
  Porcelain-fused-to-metal  Jel-5           105.0    724        9
Titanium                                     79.8    550      131
Titanium-6 Al-4 V alloy                     134.9    930      131
Tooth structures
  Dentin (bovine)
    Demineralized                             3.77*** 26.0*** 185
    Mineralized                              13.1***  90.6*** 185
  Dentin (human)
    Demineralized                             4.29*** 29.6*** 185
    Mineralized                              15.3*** 105.5*** 185
  Enamel (bovine)                             3.00$$  20.7$$   92
  Enamel (human)                              1.50$$  10.3$$   92
_________________________________________________________________

*    Values determined from diametral compression test.
#    Head speed, 5 cm/min.
$    Head speed, 50 cm/min.
**   Head speed, 1.27 cm/min.
##   Head speed, 25 cm/min.
$$   Head speed, 0.005 cm/min.
***  Head speed, 0.1 cm/min.
###  As cast.
$$$  Heat treated.
**** Head speed, 0.05 cm/min.
#### Head speed, 0.85 cm/min.
 



Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted when a solid or liquid is in equilibrium with its own vapor.
_________________________________________________________________

                                   Vapor pressure   Temp.
Material                             (mm of Hg)    (deg. C)  Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Mercury                                  0.0014      22        69
                                         0.0050      38        69
                                         0.26       100        69
Mercury (in dental amalgam)           10-8           37       108
Monomers (crown-and-bridge resins)
  Methyl methacrylate                  125           50        72
                                       760          100        72
  Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate         8          100        72
  1,3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate     1          100        72
  Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate      0.01       100        72
Water                                   19.8         22         1
                                        47.1         37         1
_________________________________________________________________
 



Vickers Hardness, VHN

The Vickers hardness test or the 136 degree diamond pyramid hardness test is a micro-indentation method. The indenter produces a square indentation, the diagonals of which are measured. The diamond pyramid hardness is calculated by dividing the applied load by the surface area of the indentation.
_________________________________________________________________

Material                   Product         VHN (kg/sq. mm)   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Alumina (recrystallized)                        1200           20
Amalgam
  Ag-Hg phase                                    120           86
  Sn-Hg phase                                     15           86
Cements (liners)
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured            Fuji Lining LC         57          235
                           Vitrabond              62          235
                           XR Ionomer             38          235
Cobalt-chromium alloys     Genesis II            350            9
                           Master Tec            390          222
                           Novarex               350          223
Gold alloys
  Type I                   Ney-Oro A              55            7
  Type II                  Ney-Oro A-1           105            7
  Type III, soft           Ney-Oro B-2           125            7
  Type III, hard           Ney-Oro B-2           135            7
  Type IV, soft            Ney-Oro G-3           160            7
  Type IV, hard            Ney-Oro G-3           250            7
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, soft       Forticast             193            9
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, hard       Forticast             292            9
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, soft    Paliney No. 4         170            7
  10-15% Au-Ag-Pd, hard    Paliney No. 4         230            7
  Au-Pd                    Olympia               220            9
  Au-Pt-Pd alloy           TPW                   104          196
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal               Jelenko O             182            9
Gypsum                     Moldablaster           12          224
Nickel-chromium alloys     Unimetal              395          196
  Crown-and-bridge         Howmedica III         330          110
  Porcelain-fused-
     to-metal              Ultratek              270            6
Palladium-based dental 
  alloys                   Athenium*             270          197
                           Legacy*               270          197
                           Liberty*              340          197
                           Microstar             265            9
                           Protocol*             235          197
                           PTM-88*               235          197
                           Spartan*              360          197
                           W1*                   240          222
                           W1#                   285          222
Porcelains
  Alumina-reinforced       Vitadur-N (core)      775          231
  Castable ceramic         Dicor                 449          231
  Ceramic-whisker-
    reinforced             Mirage II             663          231
  Feldspathic              Excelco               663          231
                           Vita VMK 68           703          231
                           Vita VMK 68-N         703          231
                           Will-Ceram            611          231
  Leucite-reinforced       Optec HSP             703          231
Restorative materials
  Composite resins
    All purpose            Charisma               81          158
                           Conquest DFC           95          158
                           Heliomolar Radiopaque  56          158
                           Herculite XR           74          158
                           Marathon              100          158
                           P-50 APC              159          158
                           Pertac Hybrid         126          158
                           Prisma APH             77          158
                           Z-100                 120          158
    Anterior               Durafill               48          158
                           Helio Progress         50          158
                           Multifil VS            55          158
                           Prisma Fil             83          158
                           Prisma Microfine       39          158
                           Silux Plus             59          158
                                                  41          159
                           Valux                 107          158
                           Visio Dispers          63          158
                           Visio Fil             160          158
    Posterior              Clearfil Photo 
                             Posterior           159          158
                           Ful Fil                97          158
                           Heliomolar             61          158
                           P-10                  174          158
                           Post Comp II LC        97          158
  Glass-ionomer            Chemfil II             51          159
                           Fujicap II             74          159
                           Ketac-Fil              90          159
  Metal-reinforced-
    glass-ionomer          Ketac-Silver           40          159
Silver-palladium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge, soft   Albacast              143            9
  Crown-and-bridge, hard   Albacast              154            9
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal               Jel-5                 187            9
Titanium                                         210          131
Titanium-6 Al-4 V alloy                          320          131
Tooth structures
  Dentin                                          60          158
                                                  57          159
  Enamel                                         408          158
                                                 294          159
_________________________________________________________________
*  Specimens subjected to the porcelain firing cycles.
#  Oven hardened.
 



Viscosity

Viscosity is defined as the resistance of a substance to flow under stress. Units are g/(cm sec) or poise. Centipoise (cp) is 0.01 poise.
_________________________________________________________________
                                   Viscosity      Temp.
Material              Product         (cp)       (deg. C)    Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Cements
  Zinc phosphate        Modern Tenacin   43,200*     18       119
                                         94,700*     25       119
  Zinc polycarboxylate  Durelon         101,000*     18       119
                                        109,800*     25       119
Impression materials
  Agar                                  281,000      45        99
  Alginate              Jeltrate        252,000#     37       118
  Impression Plaster    Platogum         23,800#     37       118
  Polysulfide, light                    109,000$     36        99
                        Permlastic       57,200#     37       118
  Polysulfide, heavy                  1,360,000$     36        99
  Silicone, addition
    medium              Hydrosil      1,294,000**    37       230
                        Imprint         797,000**    37       230
                        Omnisil       1,025,000**    37       230
    heavy               Baysilex        689,000**    37       230
  Silicone, condensation
    light                                63,400$     36        99
                        Elasticon        95,000#     37       118
    medium                              420,000$     36        99
  Zinc oxide-eugenol    Luralite         99,600#     37       118
Mercury                                       1.55   20       101
Monomers (crown-and-bridge resins)
  Methyl methacrylate                         0.52   25       128
  Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate              3.40   25       129
  1,3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate          3.5    25       129
  Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate           7.5    25       129
Water                                         1.000  20         1
_________________________________________________________________

*  Measured at 45 sec. after completion of mix and 5 rpm
#  Measured at 1.5 min. from start of mix and 5 rpm
$  Measured at 2 min. from start of mix.
** Measured at 1 min. from start of mix and 2.5 rpm.





Water Sorption

Water sorption of a material represents the amount of water adsorbed on the surface and absorbed into the body of the material. The method of testing is described in American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification nos. 12 and 27 (ref. 73).
_________________________________________________________________

                                           Water sorption
Material                  Product           (mg/sq. cm)      Ref.
_________________________________________________________________
Denture liners (resilient)
  Polyphosphazene         
    fluoroelastomer        Novus               4.01$          226
  Silicone                 Molloplast-B        0.23$          226
Denture resins
  Acrylic                  Hy-Pro Lucitone     0.69*           45
  Polystyrene              Jectron             0.36*           45
  Polyvinylacrylic         Luxene 44           0.26*           45
Pit and fissure sealants
  Light-cured              Nuva-Seal           0.9$           115
  Self-cured               Delton              1.29#          127
                           9075                1.8$           115

Restorative materials
  Composite resin
    Posterior              Occlusin            0.71$          227
                           P-50                0.52$          227
_________________________________________________________________

*  Stored for 1 day.
#  Stored for 30 days.
$  Stored for 7 days.
 




Yield Strength, YS

The yield strength is defined as the stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from proportionality of stress to strain. The amount of permanent strain arbitrarily selected is referred to as the percent offset and is commonly 0.1%.
_________________________________________________________________

                                                   YS
Material                 Product       (psi x 1000)  (MPa)   Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Cements (liners)
  Glass-ionomer
    Light-cured          Vitrabond          1.60      11.0    179
                         XR Ionomer         3.15      21.7    179
  Resin                  Cavalite           8.99      62.0    179
                         Timeline           4.31      29.7    179
Cobalt-chromium alloys   Advantage*        69.8#     481#     198
                         Advantage$        67.7#     467#     198
                         Cobond*           71.8#     495#     198
                         Cobond$           66.0#     455#     198
                         Genesis II*       68.4#     472#     198
                         Genesis II$       71.9#     496#     198
                         Master Tec*       70.1#     483#     198
                         Master Tec$       73.8#     509#     198
                         Novarex*          68.9#     475#     198
                         Novarex$          81.4#     561#     198
                         Novarex II*       70.9#     489#     198
                         Novarex II$       75.5#     521#     198
                         Vi-Comp*          77.3#     533#     198
                         Vi-Comp$          73.8#     509#     198
                         Vitallium         93.4      644       61
Gold alloys
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, soft     Forticast         68#       469#       9
  40% Au-Ag-Cu, hard     Forticast        125#       862#       9
  Au-Pd                  Olympia*          63.3#     436#     199
                         Olympia$          77.9#     537#     199
  Porcelain-fused-to-
    metal                Jelenko O         72.5#     500#       9
Gutta-percha             Indian Head        1.70      11.7     28
                         Mynol              1.20       8.28    28
Iron-chromium alloy
  Partial denture        Dentillium P-D    94.4      651       61
Nickel-chromium alloys   Ceramalloy II*    71.3#     492#     199
                         Ceramalloy II$    49.6#     342#     199
                         Micro-Bond N/P2*  44.6#     308#     199
                         Micro-Bond N/P2$  34.0#     234#     199
                         Ticon*           103.0#     710#     199
                         Ticon$            71.9#     496#     199
Palladium-based 
  dental alloys          Athenium          76.1      525      197
                         Legacy            95.5      658      197
                         Liberty          115.5      796      197
                         Microstar*        76.8#     530#     199
                         Microstar$        70.7#     487#     199
                         Protocol          68.7      474      197
                         PTM-88            83.0      572      197
                         Spartan*         153.7#    1060#     199
                         Spartan$         138.6#     956#     199
                         W-1*              76.1#     525#     199
                         W-1$              80.5#     555#     199
Restorative materials
  Acrylic                Sevriton           7.50      51.7     42
  Composite resin        Adaptic           23.4      161       42
Silver-palladium alloys
  Crown-and-bridge       Albacast          42#       290#       9
  Porcelain-fused-
    to-metal             Jel-5             70#       483#       9
_________________________________________________________________
*  As cast.
#  Percent offset of 0.2%.
$  Heat treated.







Zeta Potential

A charged particle suspended in an electrolytic solution attracts ions of opposite charge to those at its surface, where they form the Stern layer. To maintain the electrical balance of the suspending fluid, ions of opposite charge are attracted to the Stern layer. The potential at the surface of that part of this diffuse double-layer of ions that can move with the particle when subjected to a voltage gradient is the zeta potential. This potential measured is very dependent upon the ionic concentration, pH, viscosity, and dielectric constant of the solution being analyzed.
_________________________________________________________________

                              Zeta potential
Material                           (mV)                      Ref.
_________________________________________________________________

Bacteria
  A. odontolyticus A7-1           -16.0*                      200
  A. viscosus C7-4                -11.1*                      200
  S. mutans
    C7-3                           -7.1*                      200
    M4S                           -13.7#                      123
  S. salivarius B3-4               -4.8*                      200
  S. sanguis C7-2                 -12.4*                      200
Bone                               -7.01$                     201
Hydroxyapatite, synthetic         -10.9**                     107
                                   -9.0#                      123
Polymers
  Poly(ether urethane)            -17.3                       202
  Silicone                        -98.5                       202
Tooth structures
  Calculus                        -15.3##                     106
  Cementum, exposed                -6.96##                    106
  Cementum, unexposed              -9.34##                    106
  Dentin                           -6.23##                    106
                                   +0.4*                      200
  Enamel                          -10.3##                     106
                                   +0.9*                      200
_________________________________________________________________

*   Measured at 25 deg. C in a physiological ionic strength 
    (0.057) medium, pH 7.0.
#   Measured in distilled water
$   Measured in 0.145 M NaCl solution, pH 7.3
**  Measured at 25 deg. C at a solid/solution ratio of 0.1
##  Measured at 30 deg. C in Hanks'balanced salt solution

Introduction to Biomaterials Properties | Biomaterials Properties Table Listing |
References (1-100) | References (101-200) | References (201-244) |

Revised April, 1996
Biomaterials Properties Database, University of Michigan
Contact: Dr William J. O'Brien, Director (FAX: 313-647-5293).
Copyright © Quintessence Publishing, 1996.

  © Dr.Jiří Kantor_ prohlášení a ochrana soukromí _